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Carotenoid Name
IUPAC name (3R,3'R)-7,8-Didehydro-beta,beta-carotene-3,3'-diol
Molecular Weight 
566.832 g/mol
Mol file
Carotenoid DB Fingerprints 
Biological functions/Properties 
  • Photoprotective activity (Ref.429).
  • Xanthophyll cycle pigment.
  • Anticarcinogenic activity (Ref.494).
  • Number of
    conjugated double bonds 
    Number of
    conjugated multiple bonds 
    Canonical SMILES
    Hydrogen Bond donors
    (Lipinski's definition)
    Hydrogen Bond Acceptors
    (Lipinski's definition)
    Complexity of molecule
    Number of heavy atoms
    (Topological Polar Surface Area) 
    40.460 Å2
    Source organisms
    Pelagococcus subviridis (Ref.29) - Alga: Pelagophyceae
    Sarcinochrysis marina Getler (Ref.30) - Alga: Pelagophyceae
    Hymenomonas carterae (Ref.31) - Alga: Haptophyte
    Isochrysis galbana (Ref.31) - Alga: Haptophyte
    Pavlova lutheri (Ref.31) - Alga: Haptophyte
    Pavlova sp. (NEP)  - Alga: Haptophyte
    Phaeocystis sp. (Ref.31) - Alga: Haptophyte
    Prymnesium parvum (Ref.31) - Alga: Haptophyte
    Amphidinium carterae (Ref.33) - Alga: Dinoflagellate
    Gymnodinum nelsoni (Ref.33) - Alga: Dinoflagellate
    Peridinium bipes (Ref.494) - Alga: Dinoflagellate
    Tovellia sanguinea (Ref.34) - Alga: Dinoflagellate
    Skeletonema costatum (Ref.36) - Alga: Diatom
    Skeletonema menzelii (Ref.36) - Alga: Diatom
    Thalassiosira eccentrica (Ref.36) - Alga: Diatom
    Thalassiosira oceanica (Ref.36) - Alga: Diatom
    Thalassiosira pseudonana (Ref.36) - Alga: Diatom
    Thalassiosira rotula (Ref.36) - Alga: Diatom
    Grammatophora oceanica (Ref.36) - Alga: Diatom
    Navicula pelliculosa (Ref.36) - Alga: Diatom
    Nitzschia sp. (Ref.36) - Alga: Diatom
    Phaeodactylum tricornutum (Ref.36) - Alga: Diatom
    Euglena gracilis (Ref.38, Ref.8) - Alga: Euglenoid
    Euglena sanguinea (Ref.43) - Alga: Euglenoid
    Euglena viridis (Ref.44) - Alga: Euglenoid
    Eutreptiella gymnastica (Ref.45) - Alga: Euglenoid
    Corbicula japonica (Ref.221) - Shellfish: bivalve
    Corbicula sandai (Ref.221) - Shellfish: bivalve
    Corbicula clam (Ref.221) - Shellfish: bivalve
    Carassius auratus (Ref.365) - Bony fish: gold fish
    Fusinus perplexus (Ref.442) - Shellfish: univalve shell
    Clione limacina (Ref.635) - gastropods
    Paedoclione doliiformis (Ref.635) - gastropods
    Limacina helicina (Ref.635) - gastropods
  • Ref.29 : T.Bjoernland, S. Liaaen-Jensen, and J. Throndsen, Phytochemistry, Vol. 28, No. 12, pp. 3347-3353, 1989; "Carotenoids of the marine chrysophyte Pelagococcus subviridis".
  • Ref.30 : N. W. Withers, A. Fiksdahl, R.C. Tuttle, and S. Liaaen-Jense, Comp. Biochem. Physiol. Vol. 68B, pp. 345 to 349, 1979, "Carotenoids of the Chrysophyceae".
  • Ref.31 : R. Berger, and S. Liaaen-Jensen, Biochemical Systematics and Ecology, 1977, Vol. 5, pp.71-75 "Carotenoids of Prymnesiophyceae (Haptophyceae)* ".
  • Ref.33 : J. E. Joansen, W. A. Svec, and S. Liaaen-Jensen, Phytochemistry, 1974, Vol.13 pp.2261-2271, "Carotenoids of the Dinophyceae".
  • Ref.494 : Takashi MAOKA, Miyuki TSUSHIMA, and Hoyoku NISHINO, Chem. Pharm. Bull. 50(12) 1630—1633 (2002), "Isolation and Characterization of Dinochrome A and B, Anti-carcinogenic Active Carotenoids from the Fresh Water Red Tide Peridinium bipes".
  • Ref.34 : R. Frassanito G. Flaim, I. Mancini, G. Guella, Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 34 (2006) pp.843-853, "High production of unexpected carotenoids in Dinophyceae. Astaxanthin esters from freshwater dinoflagellate Tovellia sanguinea".
  • Ref.36 : F. Pennington, R. R. L. Guillard and S. Liaaen-Jensen, Biochemical Systematics and Ecology, Vol.16, No.7/8, pp. 589-592, 1988, "Carotenoid Distribution Patterns in Bacillariophyceae (Diatoms)".
  • Ref.38 : D. V. Heelis, W. Kernick, G. O. Philips, and K. Davies, Arch. Microbiol. 121, 207-211 (1979), "Separation and Identification of the Carotenoid Pigments of Stigmata Isolated from Light Grown Cells of Euglena gracilis Strain Z".
  • Ref.8 : L. Schlueter, T. L. Lauridsen, G. Krogh, and Joergensen, Freshwater Biology, 2006, 51, 1474-1485 " Identification and quantification of phytoplankton groups in lakes using new pigment ratios – a comparison between pigment analysis by HPLC and microscopy".
  • Ref.43 : Merte grung, S. Liaaen-Jensen, Biochemical Systematics and Ecology, Vol. 21, No. 8, pp. 757-763, 1993 "Algal Carotenoids52*; Secondary carotenoids of Algae 3; Carotenoids in natural bloom of Euglena sanguinea".
  • Ref.44 : A. Fiksdahl, S. Liaaen-Jensen, Phytochemistry, Vol.27, No.5, pp. 1447 - 1450, 1988 "Diacetylenic carotenoids from Euglena viridis".
  • Ref.45 : A. Fiksdahl, T. Bjoernland, and S. Liaaen-Jensen, Phytochemistry, Vol. 23, No.3, pp. 649-655, 1984, "Algal carotenoids with novel end groups".
  • Ref.221 : Maoka, Takashi; Fujiwara, Yasuhiro; Hashimoto, Keiji; Akimoto, Naoshige, Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (2005), 53(21), 8357-8364. "Carotenoids in Three Species of Corbicula Clams, Corbicula japonica, Corbicula sandai, and Corbicula sp. (Chinese Freshwater Corbicula Clam)".
  • Ref.365 : Masahiro Ohkubo, Miyuki Tsushima, Takashi Maoka, Takao Matsuno, Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part B: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Volume 124, Issue 3, November 1999, Pages 333–340, "Carotenoids and their metabolism in the goldfish Carassius auratus (Hibuna)".
  • Ref.442 : Kiyoshi Katagiri, Takashi Maoka, Takao Matsuno, COMPARATIVE BIOCHEMISTRY AND PHYSIOLOGY. B, COMPARATIVE BIOCHEMISTRY, 84(4):473-476 · JANUARY 1986, "Carotenoids of shell fishes-VIII. Comparative biochemical studies of carotenoids in three species of spindleshell, Fusinus perplexus, F.p. ferrugineus and F. forceps".
  • Ref.635 : Takashi Maoka, Takashi Kuwahara, and Masanao Narita, Mar. Drugs 2014, 12, 1460-1470, "Carotenoids of Sea Angels Clione limacina and Paedoclione doliiformis from the Perspective of the Food Chain", doi:10.3390/md12031460.
  • Ref.429 : Reimund Goss, Elizabeth Ann Pinto, Christian Wilhelm, Michael Richter, Journal of Plant Physiology, Volume 163, Issue 10, 5 October 2006, Pages 1008–1021, "The importance of a highly active and ΔpH-regulated diatoxanthin epoxidase for the regulation of the PS II antenna function in diadinoxanthin cycle containing algae".
  • CAS
    Links to other DB
    KNApSAcK: C00022863
    LipidBank: VCA0052
    MassBank: CA000052

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