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Carotenoid Name
IUPAC name beta,beta-Caroten-4-one
Molecular Weight 
550.832 g/mol
Mol file
Carotenoid DB Fingerprints 
Biological functions/Properties 
  • Photoprotective pigment - possible outer membrane-bound UV-B photoprotector (Ref.497).
  • Number of
    conjugated double bonds 
    12 including one ketone (12 in total)
    Number of
    conjugated multiple bonds 
    12 including one ketone (12 in total)
    Canonical SMILES
    Hydrogen Bond donors
    (Lipinski's definition)
    Hydrogen Bond Acceptors
    (Lipinski's definition)
    Complexity of molecule
    Number of heavy atoms
    (Topological Polar Surface Area) 
    17.070 Å2
    Source organisms
    Rhizobium lupini (Ref.449) - Alphaproteobacteria: root nodule bacterium
    Oscillantoria rubescens (Ref.1) - Cyanobacteria: other name is Planktothrix rubescens
    Oscillatoria agardhii (Ref.1) - Cyanobacteria: other name is Planktothrix agardhii
    Oscillatoria amoena (Ref.1) - Cyanobacteria
    Oscillatoria tenuis (Ref.1) - Cyanobacteria: hot spring alga
    Oscillatoria limosa (Ref.1) - Cyanobacteria
    Oscillatoria princeps (Ref.1) - Cyanobacteria
    Arthrospira sp. (Ref.1) - Cyanobacteria
    Stigonema ocellatum (Ref.603) - Cyanobacteria: terrestrial cyanobacteria sampled from rock surfaces containing chlorophyll a
    Stigonema hormoides (Ref.603) - Cyanobacteria: terrestrial cyanobacteria sampled from rock surfaces containing chlorophyll a
    Scytonema crassum (Ref.603) - Cyanobacteria: terrestrial cyanobacteria sampled from rock surfaces containing chlorophyll a
    Phormidium ectocarpi (Ref.1) - Cyanobacteria
    Phormidium percicinum (Ref.1) - Cyanobacteria
    Phormidium foveolarum (Ref.1) - Cyanobacteria
    Phormidium lucidum (Ref.1) - Cyanobacteria
    Microcoleus paludosus (Ref.1) - Cyanobacteria
    Microcoleus vaginatus (Ref.1, Ref.5) - Cyanobacteria
    Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (Ref.1) - Cyanobacteria
    Anabaena cylindrica (Ref.1, Ref.5) - Cyanobacteria: a nitrogen-fixing filamentous cyanobacterium
    Anabaena variabilis (Ref.1, Ref.5) - Cyanobacteria: filamentous cyanobacterium
    Anabaena variabilis ATCC 29413 (Ref.527) - Cyanobacteria
    Anabaena aerulosa oscillatorioides (Ref.1) - Cyanobacteria
    Anabaena flos-aquae (Ref.610) - Cyanobacteria: filamentous cyanobacterium same as Dolichospermum flos-aquae
    Cylindrospormum sp. (Ref.1, Ref.5) - Cyanobacteria
    Nostoc sp. (Ref.1, Ref.5) - Cyanobacteria
    Nostoc commune (Ref.1) - Cyanobacteria: star jelly, witch's butter, mare's eggs, fah-tsai and facai, eaten as a salad
    Tolypothrix tenuis (Ref.1) - Cyanobacteria: filaments repeated single false branched forming cyanobacteria, yellow-brown colored
    Calothrix parietina (Ref.1) - Cyanobacteria: a hair-forming cyanobacteria rom an upland stream
    Mastigocladus laminosus (Ref.1, Ref.5) - Cyanobacteria
    Coccochloris elabens (Ref.1, Ref.5) - Cyanobacteria
    Synechococcus elongatus (Ref.1) - Cyanobacteria: freshwater unicellular cyanobacterium
    Microcystis aeruginosa (Ref.1) - Cyanobacteria
    Merismopedia punctata (Ref.1) - Cyanobacteria: colony square or rectangular
    Synechocystis sp. (Ref.8) - Cyanobacteria
    Aphanizomenon gracile (Ref.8) - Cyanobacteria
    Planktothrix agardhii (Ref.8) - Cyanobacteria
    Microcystis aeruginosa (Ref.8) - Cyanobacteria
    Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (Ref.12, Ref.13, Ref.14) - Green alga: Chlamydomonadales, unicellular green alga
    Neochloris wimmeri  - Green alga: Scenedesmaceae
    Ettlia carotinosa (Ref.16) - Green alga: Chlamydomonadales
    Protosiphon botryoides (Ref.16, Ref.17) - Green alga: Chlamydomonadales
    Scenedesmus vacuolatus (Ref.16) - Green alga: Scenedesmaceae
    Botryococcus braunii (Ref.19) - Green alga: Trebouxiophyceae
    Nannochloropsis oculata (Ref.27, Ref.28) - Alga: Eustigmatophyceae
    Nannochloropsis salina (Ref.27, Ref.28) - Alga: Eustigmatophyceae
    Isochrysis galbana (Ref.31) - Alga: Haptophyte
    Skeletonema costatum (Ref.36) - Alga: Diatom
    Navicula pelliculosa (Ref.36) - Alga: Diatom
    Euglena gracilis (Ref.37, Ref.38, Ref.40, Ref.8) - Alga: Euglenoid
    Euglena gracilis var. bacillarus (Ref.41) - Alga: Euglenoid
    Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous (Ref.204) - Fungi: red yeast
    Gelliodes callista (Ref.253) - Sea sponge
    Gloeobacter violaceus PCC 7421 (Ref.266) - Cyanobacteria: rod-shape unicellular cyanobacterium, diverged very early during the evolution of cyanobacteria
    Corbicula japonica (Ref.221) - Shellfish: bivalve
    Corbicula sandai (Ref.221) - Shellfish: bivalve
    Corbicula clam (Ref.221) - Shellfish: bivalve
    Botryococcus braunii Kawaguchi-1 (Ref.231) - Green alga: Trebouxiophyceae
    Rhacophorus bipunctatus (Ref.421) - Himalaya flying frog
    Fusinus perplexus (Ref.442) - Shellfish: univalve shell
    Phoenicoparrus jamesi (Ref.471) - Bird: Puna flamingo
    Clione limacina (Ref.635) - gastropods
    Paedoclione doliiformis (Ref.635) - gastropods
  • Ref.449 : Kleinig, Hans; Heumann, Wolfram; Meister, Walter; Englert, Gerhard, Helvetica Chimica Acta (1979), 62(8), 2551-7., "Carotenoids of Rhizobia.  I.  New carotenoids from Rhizobium lupini".
  • Ref.1 : S. Hertzberg, S. Liaaen-Jensen, and H. W. Siegelman, Phytochemistry, 1971, Vol. 10, pp. 3121 - 3127 "The carotenois of blue-green algae".
  • Ref.603 : M Lakatos, W Bilger, B Büdel, Eur. J. Phycol. (2001), 36: 367–375., "Carotenoid composition of terrestrial Cyanobacteria: response to natural light conditions in open rock habitats in Venezuela".
  • Ref.5 : T. W. Goodwin, J. gen. Microbiol. 17, 467-473 (1957), "The nature and distribution of Carotenoids in some Blue-Green Algae".
  • Ref.527 : Shinichi Takaichi, Mari Mochimaru, and Takashi Maoka, Plant Cell Physiol. 47(2): 211–216 (2006), doi:10.1093/pcp/pci236, "Presence of Free Myxol and 4-Hydroxymyxol and Absence of Myxol Glycosides in Anabaena variabilis ATCC 29413, and Proposal of a Biosynthetic Pathway of Carotenoids".
  • Ref.610 : The Biochemistry of the Carotenoids: Volume I Plants, p.237, Springer, ISBN-10: 9400958625, ISBN-13: 978-9400958623.
  • Ref.8 : L. Schlueter, T. L. Lauridsen, G. Krogh, and Joergensen, Freshwater Biology, 2006, 51, 1474-1485 " Identification and quantification of phytoplankton groups in lakes using new pigment ratios – a comparison between pigment analysis by HPLC and microscopy".
  • Ref.12 : N.I. Krinsky and R. P. Levine, Plant Physiol. Jul 1964; 39(4): 680–687. "Carotenoids of Wild Type and Mutant Strains of the Green Alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardi".
  • Ref.13 : PMID: 1190948: Francis GW, Strand LP, Lien T, Knutsen G., Arch Microbiol. 1975 Aug 28;104(3):249-54. "Variations in the Carotenoid Content of Chlamydomonas reinhardii throughout the Cell cycle".
  • Ref.14 : S. Tkaichi, and M. Mimuro, Plant Cell Physiol. 39(9): 968-977 (1998) "Distribution and Geometric Isomerism of Neoxanthin in Oxygenic Phototrophs: 9'-Cis, a Sole Molecular Form".
  • Ref.16 : M. Orosa, E. Torres, P. Fidalgo, J. Abalde, Journal of Applied Phycology, October 2000, Volume 12, Issue 3-5, pp 553-556 "Production and analysis of secondary carotenoids in green algae".
  • Ref.17 : H. Kleinig and F. C. Czygan (1969), Z Naturforsch B. 1969 Jul;24(7):927-30. "Lipids of Protosiphon (Chlorophyta) Carotenoids and Carotenoid Esters of five Strains of Protosiphon botryoides Klebs" .
  • Ref.19 : Merete Grunga, Pierre Metzger, Synnove Liaaen-jensen, Biochemical Systematics and Ecology, Volume 17, Issue 4, 28 July 1989, Pages 263–269 "Primary and Secondary Carotenoids in Two Races of the Green Alga Botryocossu braunii".
  • Ref.27 : N. J. Antial, and J.Y. Cheng, British Phycological Journal, Volume 17, Issue 1, 1982 "The Keto carotenoids of two marine cocoid members of the eustimaphyceae" DOI:10.1080/00071618200650061 .
  • Ref.28 : Luis M. Lubián, Olimpio Montero, Ignacio Moreno-Garrido, I. Emma Huertas, Cristina Sobrino, Manuel González-del Valle, Griselda Parés, Journal of Applied Phycology, October 2000, Volume 12, Issue 3-5, pp 249-255 "Nannochloropsis (Eustigmatophyceae) as source of commercially valuable pigments".
  • Ref.31 : R. Berger, and S. Liaaen-Jensen, Biochemical Systematics and Ecology, 1977, Vol. 5, pp.71-75 "Carotenoids of Prymnesiophyceae (Haptophyceae)* ".
  • Ref.36 : F. Pennington, R. R. L. Guillard and S. Liaaen-Jensen, Biochemical Systematics and Ecology, Vol.16, No.7/8, pp. 589-592, 1988, "Carotenoid Distribution Patterns in Bacillariophyceae (Diatoms)".
  • Ref.37 : N. I. Krinsky, and T. H. Goldsmith, Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 91, 271-279 (1960), "The Carotenoids of the Flagellated Alga, Euglena gracilis".
  • Ref.38 : D. V. Heelis, W. Kernick, G. O. Philips, and K. Davies, Arch. Microbiol. 121, 207-211 (1979), "Separation and Identification of the Carotenoid Pigments of Stigmata Isolated from Light Grown Cells of Euglena gracilis Strain Z".
  • Ref.40 : 細谷圭助、北岡正三郎、日本栄養•食糧学会誌 Vol. 37, No. 6, 519-524, 1984 「Euglena gracilis Z におけるプロビタミンAの高速液体クロマトグラフによる定量および培養条件による変動」.
  • Ref.41 : N. I. Krinsky, A. Gordon, and A. I. Stern, Plant Physiol 39: 441-445 1964, "The appearance of Neoxanthin during the Regreenin g of Dark-grown Euglena".
  • Ref.204 : Tani C, Maoka T, Tani M, Moritomo Y, Okada T, Kitahara G, Katamoto H., J Oleo Sci. 2014;63(9):943-51. Epub 2014 Aug 5., "Accumulation of xanthophylls from the phaffia yeast (Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhrous) in calves.".
  • Ref.253 : Tanaka, Yoshito; Inoue, Tsuyoshi, Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi (1987), 53(7), 1271-3., "new aldehydic carotenoid gelliodesxanthin from sea sponge Gelliodes callista".
  • Ref.266 : Tsuchiya T, Takaichi S, Misawa N, Maoka T, Miyashita H, Mimuro M., FEBS Lett. 2005 Apr 11;579(10):2125-9., "The cyanobacterium Gloeobacter violaceus PCC 7421 uses bacterial-type phytoene desaturase in carotenoid biosynthesis.".
  • Ref.221 : Maoka, Takashi; Fujiwara, Yasuhiro; Hashimoto, Keiji; Akimoto, Naoshige, Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (2005), 53(21), 8357-8364. "Carotenoids in Three Species of Corbicula Clams, Corbicula japonica, Corbicula sandai, and Corbicula sp. (Chinese Freshwater Corbicula Clam)".
  • Ref.231 : Agrawal, Poonam; Laddha, Kirti; Tiwari, Ashok, Agrawal, Poonam; Laddha, Kirti; Tiwari, Ashok., "Isolation and HPLC method development of azafrin from Alectra parasitica var. chitrakutensis".
  • Ref.421 : Pinky Baruah and Goswami UC., Journal of Research in Biology, pp.114-118, 2012, Vol.2, No.2, "Characterization of carotenoid pigments in amphibian, Rhacophorous bipunctatus".
  • Ref.442 : Kiyoshi Katagiri, Takashi Maoka, Takao Matsuno, COMPARATIVE BIOCHEMISTRY AND PHYSIOLOGY. B, COMPARATIVE BIOCHEMISTRY, 84(4):473-476 · JANUARY 1986, "Carotenoids of shell fishes-VIII. Comparative biochemical studies of carotenoids in three species of spindleshell, Fusinus perplexus, F.p. ferrugineus and F. forceps".
  • Ref.471 : Denis L Fox, Thomas S Hopkins, Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, Volume 17, Issue 3, March 1966, Pages 841–856, "Comparative metabolic fractionation of carotenoids in three flamingo species".
  • Ref.635 : Takashi Maoka, Takashi Kuwahara, and Masanao Narita, Mar. Drugs 2014, 12, 1460-1470, "Carotenoids of Sea Angels Clione limacina and Paedoclione doliiformis from the Perspective of the Food Chain", doi:10.3390/md12031460.
  • Ref.497 : Ehling-Schulz, Bilger W, Scherer S., J Bacteriol. 1997 Mar;179(6):1940-5., "UV-B-induced synthesis of photoprotective pigments and extracellular polysaccharides in the terrestrial cyanobacterium Nostoc commune.".
  • CAS
    Links to other DB
    LipidBank: VCA0058
    MassBank: CA000149
    ProCarDB: C1921

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