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Carotenoid Name
IUPAC name (3R,3'R,6'R)-beta,epsilon-Carotene-3,19,3'-triol
Molecular Weight 
584.848 g/mol
Mol file
Carotenoid DB Fingerprints 
Biological functions/Properties 
  • Not an active antenna pigment but instead participates in the loroxanthin/lutein interconversion (Ref.626)
  • Number of
    conjugated double bonds 
    Number of
    conjugated multiple bonds 
    Canonical SMILES
    Hydrogen Bond donors
    (Lipinski's definition)
    Hydrogen Bond Acceptors
    (Lipinski's definition)
    Complexity of molecule
    Number of heavy atoms
    (Topological Polar Surface Area) 
    60.690 Å2
    Source organisms
    Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (Ref.12, Ref.13, Ref.14) - Green alga: Chlamydomonadales, unicellular green alga
    Botryococcus braunii (Ref.19) - Green alga: Trebouxiophyceae
    Chlorella vulgaris (Ref.23) - Green alga: Trebouxiophyceae
    Aegagrophila linnaei (Ref.24) - Green alga: Ulvophyceae
    Basicladia sp. (Ref.24) - Green alga: Ulvophyceae
    Chaetomorpha okamurae (Ref.24) - Green alga: Ulvophyceae
    Cladophora conchopheria (Ref.24) - Green alga: Ulvophyceae
    Cladophora horii (Ref.24) - Green alga: Ulvophyceae
    Cladophora kosterae (Ref.24) - Green alga: Ulvophyceae
    Cladophora ohkuboana (Ref.24) - Green alga: Ulvophyceae
    Pithophora sp. (Ref.24) - Green alga: Ulvophyceae
    Wittrockiella lyallii (Ref.24) - Green alga: Ulvophyceae
    Wittrockiella paradoxa (Ref.24) - Green alga: Ulvophyceae
    Cladophoropsis fasciculatus (Ref.24) - Green alga: Ulvophyceae
    Chaetomorpha crassa (Ref.24) - Green alga: Ulvophyceae
    Cladophora albida (Ref.24) - Green alga: Ulvophyceae
    Cladophora glomerata (Ref.24) - Green alga: Ulvophyceae
    Cladophora japonica (Ref.24) - Green alga: Ulvophyceae
    Cladophora ohkuboana (Ref.24) - Green alga: Ulvophyceae
    Cladophora pellucida (Ref.24) - Green alga: Ulvophyceae
    Cladophora sericea (Ref.24) - Green alga: Ulvophyceae
    Cladophora vagabunda (Ref.24) - Green alga: Ulvophyceae
    Rhizoclonium grande (Ref.24) - Green alga: Ulvophyceae
    Euglena sanguinea (Ref.43) - Alga: Euglenoid
    Tetraselmis chui (Ref.48) - Green alga: Chlorodendraceae
    Tetraselmis marina (Ref.48) - Green alga: Chlorodendraceae
    Tetraselmis rubens (Ref.48) - Green alga: Chlorodendraceae
    Tetraselmis subcordiformis (Ref.48) - Green alga: Chlorodendraceae
    Tetraselmis suecica (Ref.48) - Green alga: Chlorodendraceae
    Tetraselmis tetrathele (Ref.48) - Green alga: Chlorodendraceae
    Pyramimonas parkeae (Ref.48) - Green alga: Prasinophyte
    Botryococcus braunii Kawaguchi-1 (Ref.231) - Green alga: Trebouxiophyceae
    Corbicula sandai (Ref.221) - Shellfish: bivalve
    Corbicula clam (Ref.221) - Shellfish: bivalve
    Protousnea sp. (Ref.388) - Fungi: lichen
  • Ref.12 : N.I. Krinsky and R. P. Levine, Plant Physiol. Jul 1964; 39(4): 680–687. "Carotenoids of Wild Type and Mutant Strains of the Green Alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardi".
  • Ref.13 : PMID: 1190948: Francis GW, Strand LP, Lien T, Knutsen G., Arch Microbiol. 1975 Aug 28;104(3):249-54. "Variations in the Carotenoid Content of Chlamydomonas reinhardii throughout the Cell cycle".
  • Ref.14 : S. Tkaichi, and M. Mimuro, Plant Cell Physiol. 39(9): 968-977 (1998) "Distribution and Geometric Isomerism of Neoxanthin in Oxygenic Phototrophs: 9'-Cis, a Sole Molecular Form".
  • Ref.19 : Merete Grunga, Pierre Metzger, Synnove Liaaen-jensen, Biochemical Systematics and Ecology, Volume 17, Issue 4, 28 July 1989, Pages 263–269 "Primary and Secondary Carotenoids in Two Races of the Green Alga Botryocossu braunii".
  • Ref.23 : Märki-Fischer, E., Bütikofer, P.-A., Buchecker, R., and Eugster, C.H. Helv. Chim. Acta, 66 PAGE : 1175 -1182 (1983) "Absolute configuration of loroxanthin (=(3R,3'R,6'R)-b,e-carotene-3,19,3'-triol)".
  • Ref.24 : Y. Yoshii, I,. Wakana, K. Miriya, S. Arai, K. Ueda, and I. Inouye, J. Phycol. 40, 1170-1177 (2004) "Carotenoid comositions of Cladophora Balls (Aegagropila linnaei) and some members of the Cladophorales (Ulvophyceae, Chlorophyta): their taxonomic and evolutionary implication".
  • Ref.43 : Merte grung, S. Liaaen-Jensen, Biochemical Systematics and Ecology, Vol. 21, No. 8, pp. 757-763, 1993 "Algal Carotenoids52*; Secondary carotenoids of Algae 3; Carotenoids in natural bloom of Euglena sanguinea".
  • Ref.48 : Jose L. Carrido, Francisco Rodriguez, and Mannuel Zapata J. Phycol. 15, 366-374 (2009) "Occurrence of Loroxanthin, Loroxanthin decenoate, and Loroxanthin dodecenoate in Tetraselmis species (Prasinophyceae, Chlorophyta)".
  • Ref.231 : Agrawal, Poonam; Laddha, Kirti; Tiwari, Ashok, Agrawal, Poonam; Laddha, Kirti; Tiwari, Ashok., "Isolation and HPLC method development of azafrin from Alectra parasitica var. chitrakutensis".
  • Ref.221 : Maoka, Takashi; Fujiwara, Yasuhiro; Hashimoto, Keiji; Akimoto, Naoshige, Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (2005), 53(21), 8357-8364. "Carotenoids in Three Species of Corbicula Clams, Corbicula japonica, Corbicula sandai, and Corbicula sp. (Chinese Freshwater Corbicula Clam)".
  • Ref.388 : B. Czeczuga, E. Czeczuga-Semeniuk, S. Calvelo, and S. Liberatore, Journal of Botanical Taxonomy and Geobotany, Volume 116, Issue 3-4, pages 195–200, August 2005, "Carotenoids in representatives of the Protousnea (Parmeliaceae), endemic genus from South America".
  • Ref.626 : Yukie Yoshii, Takeaki Hanyuda, Isamu Wakana, Kazuyuki Miyaji, Shogo Arai, Kunihiko Ueda, and Isao Inouye, J. Phycol. 40, 1170–1177 (2004), DOI: 10.1111/j.1529-8817.2004.03210.x, "CAROTENOID COMPOSITIONS OF CLADOPHORA BALLS (AEGAGROPILA LINNAEI) AND SOME MEMBERS OF THE CLADOPHORALES (ULVOPHYCEAE, CHLOROPHYTA): THEIR TAXONOMIC AND EVOLUTIONARY IMPLICATION1".
  • CAS
    Links to other DB
    KNApSAcK: C00022916
    LipidBank: VCA1074

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