Carotenoids obi
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Carotenoid Name
IUPAC name 9-Apo-beta-caroten-9-one
Molecular Weight 
192.29 g/mol
Mol file
Carotenoid DB Fingerprints 
Biological functions/Properties 
  • Non enzymatically induced by strong high-light (Ref.614).
  • Fruit flavor (Ref.476), flavor of white-fleshed nectarines (Ref.623), typical floral-woody note (Ref.490).;Contribute to tomato flavor (Ref.393).
  • An aroma component of Asakusa-nori (Ref.623).
  • Number of
    conjugated double bonds 
    3 including one ketone (3 in total)
    Number of
    conjugated multiple bonds 
    3 including one ketone
  • Constitutional isomer: CA01013, CA01076, CA01171, CA01177, CA00864, CA01164
  • InChI
    Canonical SMILES
    Hydrogen Bond donors
    (Lipinski's definition)
    Hydrogen Bond Acceptors
    (Lipinski's definition)
    Complexity of molecule
    Number of heavy atoms
    (Topological Polar Surface Area) 
    17.070 Å2
    Source organisms
    Anabaena spp. (Ref.398) - Terrabacteria group; Cyanobacteria/Melainabacteria group; Cyanobacteria
    Nostoc sp. PCC 7120 (Ref.550) - Cyanobacteria: same as Anabaena sp. PCC 7120
    Nostoc spp. (Ref.398) - Cyanobacteria
    Spirulina platensis (Ref.398) - Cyanobacteria
    Rosa damascena (Ref.479) - Land plant: Rosaceae: Damask rose, same as Rosa damascena Mill
    Rosa centifolia L. (Ref.479) - Land plant: Rosaceae: Rose de Mai, Burgundy rose
    Coffea arabica (Ref.324) - Land plant: arabica coffee
    Coffea canephora (Ref.324) - Land plant: robusta coffee
    Solanum lycopersicum (Ref.393, Ref.395) - Land plant: Solanaceae: tomato
    Cucumis melo (Ref.396) - Land plant: orange-fleshed muskmelon "honeydew"
    Laurus nobilis L. (Ref.397) - 
    Porphyra tenera (Ref.623) - Red alga: Bangiaceae, Asakusa-nori, same as Pyropia tenera
  • Ref.398 : Ivan Milovanovic, Aleksandra Mišan, Jelica Simeunovic, Dajana KovaI, Dubravka Jambrec, and Anamarija Mandic, Hindawi Publishing Corporation, Journal of Chemistry, Volume 2015, Article ID 969542, 6 pages,, "Determination of Volatile Organic Compounds in Selected Strains of Cyanobacteria".
  • Ref.550 : Erin K. Marasco, Kimleng Vay, and Claudia Schmidt-Dannert, THE JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY VOL. 281, NO. 42, pp. 31583–31593, October 20, 2006, "Identification of Carotenoid Cleavage Dioxygenases from Nostoc sp. PCC 7120 with Different Cleavage Activities".
  • Ref.479 : Rosana Álvarez, Belen Vaz, Hinrich Gronemeyer, and Ángel R. de Lera, Chem Rev. 2014 Jan 8;114(1):1-125. doi: 10.1021/cr400126u. Epub 2013 Nov 22., PMID: 24266866, "Functions, Therapeutic Applications, and Synthesis of Retinoids and Carotenoids".
  • Ref.324 : Andreas Degenhardta, Martin Preinigerb, Frank Ullrich, Developments in Food Science, Volume 43, 2006, Pages 379–382, "Carotenoids as flavour precursors in coffee".
  • Ref.393 : Jonathan T Vogel, Denise M Tieman, Charles A Sims, Asli Z Odabasi, David G Clark, and Harry J Klee, J Sci Food Agric. 2010 Oct;90(13):2233-40. doi: 10.1002/jsfa.4076., "Carotenoid content impacts flavor acceptability in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum).".
  • Ref.395 : Andrew J. Simkin, Steven H. Schwartz, Michele Auldridge, Mark G. Taylor, and Harry J. Klee, The Plant Journal (2004) 40, 882–892, doi: 10.1111/j.1365-313X.2004.02263.x, "The tomato carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 1 genes contribute to the formation of the flavor volatiles b-ionone, pseudoionone, and geranylacetone".
  • Ref.396 : Ibdah M, Azulay Y, Portnoy V, Wasserman B, Bar E, Meir A, Burger Y, Hirschberg J, Schaffer AA, Katzir N, Tadmor Y, Lewinsohn E., Phytochemistry. 2006 Aug;67(15):1579-89. Epub 2006 Mar 23., "Functional characterization of CmCCD1, a carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase from melon.".
  • Ref.397 : Yahyaa, Mosaab; Berim, Anna; Isaacson, Tal; Marzouk, Sally; Bar, Einat; Davidovich-Rikanati, Rachel; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Ibdah, Mwafaq, ournal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (2015), 63(37), 8275-8282., "Isolation and Functional Characterization of Carotenoid Cleavage Dioxygenase-1 from Laurus nobilis L. (Bay Laurel) Fruits".
  • Ref.623 : Peter Winterhalter and Russell Rouseff, ”Carotenoid-Derived Aroma Compounds: An Introduction”, ACS Symposium Series; American Chemical Society: Washington, DC, 2001., doi: 10.1021/bk-2002-0802.ch001.
  • Ref.614 : Hou, X., Rivers, J., León, P., McQuinn, R.P., Pogson, B.J., 2016. Synthesis and Function of Apocarotenoid Signals in Plants. Trends Plant Sci. xx, 1–12. doi:10.1016/j.tplants.2016.06.001.
  • Ref.476 : Yahyaa M1, Bar E, Dubey NK, Meir A, Davidovich-Rikanati R, Hirschberg J, Aly R, Tholl D, Simon PW, Tadmor Y, Lewinsohn E, Ibdah M., J Agric Food Chem. 2013 Dec 18;61(50):12244-52. doi: 10.1021/jf404085k. Epub 2013 Dec 5., "Formation of norisoprenoid flavor compounds in carrot (Daucus carota L.) roots: characterization of a cyclic-specific carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 1 gene".
  • Ref.490 : Stefano Serra, Molecules 2015, 20, 12817-12840; doi:10.3390/molecules200712817, "Recent Advances in the Synthesis of Carotenoid-Derived Flavours and Fragrances".
  • CAS
    Links to other DB
    KNApSAcK: C00029816

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