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Entry
CA00328                                                            

Classification
Carotenoid Name
Zeaxanthin;
(3R,3'R)-Zeaxanthin
IUPAC name (3R,3'R)-beta,beta-Carotene-3,3'-diol
Formula
C40H56O2
Molecular Weight 
568.848 g/mol
Structure      Search similar carotenoids

Mol file
Carotenoid DB Fingerprints 
Biological functions/Properties 
  • Photosynthetic pigment (Ref.415, Ref.428, Ref.503).
  • Photoprotective activity - protective against UV light irradiation-induced lipid peroxidation (Ref.488, Ref.428).
  • Anti-photosensitizing agent - blue light filter (Ref.415).
  • Anticarcinogenic activity - stronger than β-carotene (Ref.414, Ref.491).
  • Xanthophyll cycle pigment.
  • An antioxidant - 91.2 times stronger singlet oxygen quenching ability than that of α-tocopherol - SOAC value: 91.2±3.7 (Ref.616, Ref.597, Ref.598, Ref.599, Ref.415).
  • Eye protection from oxidative stress which leads to age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and cataracts (Ref.415).
  • Feed additive - yellow coloration, and colorant for birds, swine, and fish (Ref.415).
  • Yellow food coloring (Ref.468).
  • Non-provitamin A. (Ref.408. Ref.415)
  • Membrane stabilizer in chloroplasts - decreases the membrane fluidity, increases the membrane thermostability, and lowers susceptibility to lipid peroxidation (Ref.498).
  • Number of
    conjugated double bonds 
    11
    Number of
    conjugated multiple bonds 
    11
    Isomers 
    InChI
    InChI=1S/C40H56O2/c1-29(17-13-19-31(3)21-23-37-33(5)25-35(41)27-39(37,7)8)15-11-12-16-30(2)18-14-20-32(4)22-24-38-34(6)26-36(42)28-40(38,9)10/h11-24,35-36,41-42H,25-28H2,1-10H3/b12-11+,17-13+,18-14+,23-21+,24-22+,29-15+,30-16+,31-19+,32-20+/t35-,36-/m1/s1
    InChIKey
    JKQXZKUSFCKOGQ-QAYBQHTQSA-N
    Canonical SMILES
    O[C@@H]1CC(=C(C(C1)(C)C)/C=C/C(=C/C=C/C(=C/C=C/C=C(/C=C/C=C(/C=C/C1=C(C)C[C@H](CC1(C)C)O)\C)\C)/C)/C)C
    XLogP
    10.564
    Hydrogen Bond donors
    (Lipinski's definition)
    2
    Hydrogen Bond Acceptors
    (Lipinski's definition)
    2
    LipinskiFailures
    1
    Complexity of molecule
    0.306
    Number of heavy atoms
    42
    TPSA
    (Topological Polar Surface Area) 
    40.460 Å2
    Source organisms
    Thermus thermophilus (Ref.435) - Deinococcus-Thermus: Thermophilic bacterium
    Thermus filiformis (Ref.389) - Deinococcus-Thermus
    Prochlorococcus marinus (Ref.273) - Cyanobacteria
    Prochlorococcus marinus strain CCMP 1986 (Ref.274) - Cyanobacteria
    Prochlorococcus marinus strain CCMP 1375 (Ref.274) - Cyanobacteria
    Prochlorococcus marinus strain CCMP 2773 (Ref.274) - Cyanobacteria
    Acaryochloris marina strain MBIC 11017 (Ref.274) - Cyanobacteria: symbiotic species Unicellular Cyanobacterium, an epiphyte on red alga
    Acaryochloris sp. strain Awaji (Ref.274) - Cyanobacteria: an epiphyte on red alga
    Prochlorothrix hollandica strain PCC 9006 (Ref.274) - Cyanobacteria: filamentous oxygenic photoautotrophic procaryotes containing chlorophylls a and b.
    Prochloron sp. (Ref.274) - Cyanobacteria
    Nostoc sp. PCC 7120 (Ref.72) - Cyanobacteria: same as Anabaena sp. PCC 7120
    Oscillantoria rubescens (Ref.1) - Cyanobacteria: other name is Planktothrix rubescens
    Oscillatoria agardhii (Ref.1) - Cyanobacteria: other name is Planktothrix agardhii
    Oscillatoria amoena (Ref.1) - Cyanobacteria
    Oscillatoria limosa (Ref.1) - Cyanobacteria
    Arthrospira sp. (Ref.1) - Cyanobacteria
    Phormidium ectocarpi (Ref.1) - Cyanobacteria
    Phormidium percicinum (Ref.1) - Cyanobacteria
    Phormidium foveolarum (Ref.1) - Cyanobacteria
    Phormidium lucidum (Ref.1) - Cyanobacteria
    Microcoleus vaginatus (Ref.1, Ref.5) - Cyanobacteria
    Anabaena cylindrica (Ref.1, Ref.5) - Cyanobacteria: a nitrogen-fixing filamentous cyanobacterium
    Anabaena variabilis (Ref.1, Ref.5) - Cyanobacteria: filamentous cyanobacterium
    Anabaena aerulosa oscillatorioides (Ref.1) - Cyanobacteria
    Nostoc commune (Ref.1) - Cyanobacteria: star jelly, witch's butter, mare's eggs, fah-tsai and facai, eaten as a salad
    Tolypothrix tenuis (Ref.1) - Cyanobacteria: filaments repeated single false branched forming cyanobacteria, yellow-brown colored
    Calothrix parietina (Ref.1) - Cyanobacteria: a hair-forming cyanobacteria rom an upland stream
    Mastigocladus laminosus (Ref.1, Ref.5) - Cyanobacteria
    Coccochloris elabens (Ref.1, Ref.5) - Cyanobacteria
    Anacystis nidulans (Ref.1) - Cyanobacteria: other name is Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942
    Synechococcus elongatus (Ref.1) - Cyanobacteria: freshwater unicellular cyanobacterium
    Microcystis aeruginosa (Ref.1) - Cyanobacteria
    Merismopedia punctata (Ref.1) - Cyanobacteria: colony square or rectangular
    Synechocystis sp. (Ref.8) - Cyanobacteria
    Synechococcus leopoliensis (Ref.8) - Cyanobacteria
    Aphanizomenon gracile (Ref.8) - Cyanobacteria
    Planktothrix agardhii (Ref.8) - Cyanobacteria
    Microcystis aeruginosa (Ref.8) - Cyanobacteria
    Bangia fuscopurpurea (Ref.9) - Red alga: Bangiaceae
    Bangia alropurpurea (Ref.10) - Red alga: Bangiaceae
    Porphyra perforata (Ref.10) - Red alga: Bangiaceae
    Porphyra perforata (conchocelis)  - Red alga: Bangiaceae
    Porphyra thuretii (Ref.10) - Red alga: Bangiaceae
    Smithora naiadum (Ref.10) - Red alga: Compsopogonophyceae
    Porphyridium cruentum (Ref.10) - Red alga: Porphyridiaceae, unicellular alga
    Bonnemaisonia hamifera (Ref.9) - Red alga: Bonnemaisoniales
    Gigartina stellata (Ref.9) - Red alga: Gigartinales
    Antithamnion plumula (Ref.11) - Red alga: Ceramiales
    Ceramium rubrum (Ref.9) - Red alga: Ceramiales
    Polysiphonia brodiae (Ref.9) - Red alga: Ceramiales
    Polysiphonia urceolata (Ref.9) - Red alga: Ceramiales
    Grateloupia setchelii (Ref.10) - Red alga: Halymeniales
    Prionitis cornea (Ref.10) - Red alga: Halymeniales
    Prionitis lyalii (Ref.10) - Red alga: Halymeniales
    Gelidium coulteri (Ref.10) - Red alga: Gelidiales
    Gelidium johnstonii (Ref.10) - Red alga: Gelidiales
    Gelidium pusillum (Ref.10) - Red alga: Gelidiales
    Gelidium robustum (Ref.10) - Red alga: Gelidiales
    Pterocladia capillacea (Ref.10) - Red alga: Gelidiales
    Pterocladia lucida (Ref.10) - Red alga: Gelidiales
    Chondracanthus canaliculatus (Ref.10) - Red alga: Gigartinales
    Chondracanthus corymbiferus (Ref.10) - Red alga: Gigartinales
    Chondracanthus exasperatus (Ref.10) - Red alga: Gigartinales
    Chondracanthus harveyanus (Ref.10) - Red alga: Gigartinales
    Chondracanthus spinosus (Ref.10) - Red alga: Gigartinales
    Chondracanthus squarrulosus (Ref.10) - Red alga: Gigartinales
    Chondracanthus volans (Ref.10) - Red alga: Gigartinales
    Iridaea chordata (Ref.10) - Red alga: Gigartinales
    Mazzaella affinis (Ref.10) - Red alga: Gigartinales
    Mazzaella accida (Ref.10) - Red alga: Gigartinales
    Mazzaella leptorhynchus (Ref.10) - Red alga: Gigartinales
    Mastocarpus papillatus (Ref.10) - Red alga: Gigartinales
    Eucheuma uncinatum (Ref.10) - Red alga: Gigartinales
    Opuntiella californica (Ref.10) - Red alga: Gigartinales
    Plocamium cartilagineum (Ref.10) - Red alga: Plocamiales
    Plocamium violaceae (Ref.10) - Red alga: Plocamiales
    Gracilaria gracilis (Ref.10) - Red alga: Gigartinales
    Gracilaria textorii (Ref.10) - Red alga: Gigartinales
    Gracilariopsis lemaneiformis (Ref.10) - Red alga: Gigartinales
    Centroceras clavulatum (Ref.10) - Red alga: Ceramiales
    Microcladia coulteri (Ref.10) - Red alga: Ceramiales
    Ptilota licina (Ref.10) - Red alga: Ceramiales
    Acrosorium ciliolatum (Ref.10) - Red alga: Ceramiales
    Cryptopleura farlowiana (Ref.10) - Red alga: Ceramiales
    Laurencia gardneri (Ref.10) - Red alga: Ceramiales
    Osmundea spectabilis (Ref.10) - Red alga: Ceramiales
    Polysiphonia hendryi (Ref.10) - Red alga: Ceramiales
    Polysiphonia pacifica (Ref.10) - Red alga: Ceramiales
    Bossiella californica (Ref.10) - Red alga: Corallinales
    Bossiella orbignyana (Ref.10) - Red alga: Corallinales
    Calliarthron tuberculosum (Ref.10) - Red alga: Corallinales
    Corallina officinalis (Ref.10) - Red alga: Corallinales
    Corallina vancouverensis (Ref.10) - Red alga: Corallinales
    Jania tenella (Ref.10) - Red alga: Corallinales
    Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (Ref.12, Ref.13, Ref.14) - Green alga: Chlamydomonadales, unicellular green alga
    Chlamydomonas parkeae (Ref.15) - Green alga: Chlamydomonadales, unicellular marine flagellate
    Protosiphon botryoides (Ref.16, Ref.17) - Green alga: Chlamydomonadales
    Ankistrodesmus spp. (Ref.16) - Green alga: Scenedesmaceae
    Pleurastrum paucicellulare (Ref.16) - Green alga: Ulvophyceae
    Oedogonium cardiacum (Ref.16) - Green alga: Chlorophyceae
    Chara foetida (Ref.16) - Green plants: Charophyceae
    Botryococcus braunii (Ref.19) - Green alga: Trebouxiophyceae
    Chlorella pyrenoidosa (Ref.21) - Green alga: Trebouxiophyceae
    Cladophoropsis vaucheriaeformis (Ref.24) - Green alga: Ulvophyceae
    Chaetomorpha crassa (Ref.24) - Green alga: Ulvophyceae
    Cladophora japonica (Ref.24) - Green alga: Ulvophyceae
    Cladophora ohkuboana (Ref.24) - Green alga: Ulvophyceae
    Chara tomentosa (Ref.25) - Green plants: Charophyceae
    Chara vulgaris (Ref.25) - Green plants: Charophyceae
    Chara contraria (Ref.25) - Green plants: Charophyceae
    Chara gymnophylla (Ref.25) - Green plants: Charophyceae
    Chara hispida (Ref.25) - Green plants: Charophyceae
    Chara polyacantha (Ref.25) - Green plants: Charophyceae
    Chara rudis (Ref.25) - Green plants: Charophyceae
    Chara intermedia (Ref.25) - Green plants: Charophyceae
    Chara globularis (Ref.25) - Green plants: Charophyceae
    Chara aspera (Ref.25) - Green plants: Charophyceae
    Nitella opaca (Ref.25) - Green plants: Charophyceae
    Cryptomonas ovata (Ref.26) - Alga: Cryptomonad
    Nannochloropsis oculata (Ref.27, Ref.28) - Alga: Eustigmatophyceae
    Nannochloropsis salina (Ref.27, Ref.28) - Alga: Eustigmatophyceae
    Nannochloropsis gaditana (Ref.28) - Alga: Eustigmatophyceae
    Ochromonas sp. (Ref.30) - Golden alga: Chrysophyceae
    Poterioochromonas malhamensis (Ref.30) - Golden alga: Synurophyceae
    Olisthodiscus luteus (Ref.30) - Alga: unclassified stramenopiles
    Chromulina ochromonoides (Ref.30) - Golden alga: Chrysophyceae
    Chattonella japonica (Ref.35) - Alga: Raphidophyceae
    Euglena gracilis var. bacillarus (Ref.41) - Alga: Euglenoid
    Prasinococcus capsulatus (Ref.46) - Green alga: Prasinophyte
    Pycnococcus provasolii (Ref.46) - Green alga: Prasinophyte
    Nephroselmis olivace (Ref.46) - Green alga: Prasinophyte
    Nephroselmis pyriformis (Ref.46) - Green alga: Prasinophyte
    Nephroselmis rotunda (Ref.46, Ref.47) - Green alga: Prasinophyte
    Tetraselmis sp. (Ref.46, Ref.47) - Green alga: Chlorodendraceae
    Pyramimonas amylifera (Ref.46) - Green alga: Prasinophyte
    Fucus serratus (Ref.53) - Brown alga: Fucaceae
    Fucus vesiculosus (Ref.53) - Brown alga: Fucaceae
    Pelvetia canaliculata (Ref.53) - Brown alga: Fucaceae
    Ascophyllum nodosum (Ref.53) - Brown alga: Fucaceae
    Laminaria digitata (Ref.53) - Brown alga: Laminariaceae
    Laminaria saccharina (Ref.53) - Brown alga: Laminariaceae
    Cyanophora paradoxa (Ref.55) - Glaucophyte: a freshwater species
    Glaucocystis nostochinearum (Ref.55) - Glaucophyte: Glaucocystophyceae
    Porphyridium aerugineum (Ref.55) - Red alga: Porphyridiaceae, unicellular alga
    Asterocytis ramosa (Ref.55) - Red alga: Compsopogonophyceae
    Sphingobacteriaceae sp. (Ref.165) - Bacteroidetes
    Sphingomonadaceae sp. (Ref.165) - Alphaproteobacteria: marine anoxygenic phototroph with BChl a
    Homo sapiens (Ref.196) - Mammal: Human
    Gallus gallus (Ref.219) - Bird: chicken
    Cyanidioschyzon merolae (Ref.63) - Red alga: Cyanidiaceae, unicellular haploid red alga adapted to high sulfur acidic hot spring environments
    Gelliodes callista (Ref.253) - Sea sponge
    Corbicula japonica (Ref.221) - Shellfish: bivalve
    Corbicula sandai (Ref.221) - Shellfish: bivalve
    Corbicula clam (Ref.221) - Shellfish: bivalve
    Diospyros kaki (Ref.282) - Land plant: kaki persimmon
    Cladonia sp. (Ref.609) - Fungi: lichen, ascomycetes
    Capsicum annuum var. lycopersiciforme flavum (Ref.283) - Land plant: yellow paprika
    Mangifera indica (Ref.284) - Land plant: mango
    Citrus reticulata (Ref.292) - Land plant: mandarin orange, tangerine
    Boronia megastigma (Ref.297) - Land plant: brown boronia
    Coffea arabica (Ref.324) - Land plant: arabica coffee
    Coffea canephora (Ref.324) - Land plant: robusta coffee
    Lycium barbarum (Ref.544) - Land plant: goji berry, wolfberry, Duke of Argyll's teatree, Lycium barbarum L.
    rythrobacter longus (Ref.364) - 
    Carassius auratus (Ref.365) - Bony fish: gold fish
    Agelas schmidtii (Ref.369) - Sea sponge
    Protousnea sp. (Ref.388) - Fungi: lichen
    Rhacophorus bipunctatus (Ref.421) - Himalaya flying frog
    Salvelinus alpinus (Ref.440) - Bony fish: arctic char
    Fusinus perplexus (Ref.442) - Shellfish: univalve shell
    Galleria mellonella (Ref.558) - Insect: greater wax moth
    Clione limacina (Ref.635) - gastropods
    Paedoclione doliiformis (Ref.635) - gastropods
    Limacina helicina (Ref.635) - gastropods
    References
  • Ref.435 : Yokoyama A, Shizuri Y, Hoshino T, Sandmann G., Arch Microbiol. 1996 May 22;165(5):342-5., "Thermocryptoxanthins: novel intermediates in the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway of Thermus thermophilus".
  • Ref.389 : Mandelli, Fernanda; Miranda, Viviane S.; Rodrigues, Eliseu; Mercadante, Adriana Z., World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology (2012), 28(4), 1781-1790., "Identification of carotenoids with high antioxidant capacity produced by extremophile microorganisms".
  • Ref.273 : Goericke Ralf and Daniel J. Repeta, Limnology and Oceanography Volume 37, Issue 2, pages 425–433, March 1992, "The pigments of Prochlorococcus marinus: The presence of divinylchlorophyll a and b in a marine procaryote".
  • Ref.274 : Shinichi Takaichi, Mari Mochimaru, Hiroko Uchida, Akio Murakami, Euichi Hirose, Takashi Maoka, Tohru Tsuchiya, and Mamoru Mimuro, Plant Cell Physiol. 53(11): 1881–1888 (2012) doi:10.1093/pcp/pcs126, "Opposite Chilarity of a-Carotene in Unusual Cyanobacteria with Unique Chlorophylls, Acaryochloris and Prochlorococcus".
  • Ref.72 : Heo, Jinsol; Kim, Se Hyeuk; Lee, Pyung Cheon, Applied and Environmental Microbiology (2013), 79(11), 3336-3345., "New insight into the cleavage reaction of Nostoc sp. strain PCC 7120 carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase in natural and nonnatural carotenoids".
  • Ref.1 : S. Hertzberg, S. Liaaen-Jensen, and H. W. Siegelman, Phytochemistry, 1971, Vol. 10, pp. 3121 - 3127 "The carotenois of blue-green algae".
  • Ref.5 : T. W. Goodwin, J. gen. Microbiol. 17, 467-473 (1957), "The nature and distribution of Carotenoids in some Blue-Green Algae".
  • Ref.8 : L. Schlueter, T. L. Lauridsen, G. Krogh, and Joergensen, Freshwater Biology, 2006, 51, 1474-1485 " Identification and quantification of phytoplankton groups in lakes using new pigment ratios – a comparison between pigment analysis by HPLC and microscopy".
  • Ref.9 : T. Bjoernland and M. Aguilar-Martinez, Phytochemistry, 1976, Vol.15 pp.291-296, "Carotenoids in red algae".
  • Ref.10 : N. Schubert, E. Garcia-Mendoza, and I. Pachecho-Ruiz, J. Phycol. 42, 1208-1216 (2006) "Carotenoid composition of marine red algae".
  • Ref.11 : T. Bjornland, G. Borch, and S. Liaaen-Jensen, Phytochemistry, Vol. 23, No 8, pp.1711-1715, 1984. "Configurational studies on red algae carotenoids".
  • Ref.12 : N.I. Krinsky and R. P. Levine, Plant Physiol. Jul 1964; 39(4): 680–687. "Carotenoids of Wild Type and Mutant Strains of the Green Alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardi".
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  • Ref.14 : S. Tkaichi, and M. Mimuro, Plant Cell Physiol. 39(9): 968-977 (1998) "Distribution and Geometric Isomerism of Neoxanthin in Oxygenic Phototrophs: 9'-Cis, a Sole Molecular Form".
  • Ref.15 : T. Sasa, S. Suda, M. M. Watanabe, S. Takaichi, Plant Cell Physiol. 33(5): 527-534(1992) "A novel carotenoid ester, Loroxanthin dodecenoate, from Pyramimonas parkeae (Prasinophyceae) and Chlorarachniophycean alga".
  • Ref.16 : M. Orosa, E. Torres, P. Fidalgo, J. Abalde, Journal of Applied Phycology, October 2000, Volume 12, Issue 3-5, pp 553-556 "Production and analysis of secondary carotenoids in green algae".
  • Ref.17 : H. Kleinig and F. C. Czygan (1969), Z Naturforsch B. 1969 Jul;24(7):927-30. "Lipids of Protosiphon (Chlorophyta) Carotenoids and Carotenoid Esters of five Strains of Protosiphon botryoides Klebs" .
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  • Ref.21 : B. Stephen Inbaraj, J.T. Chien, B. H. Chen. (2005); "Improved high performance liquid chromatographic method for determination of carotenoids in the microalga Chlorella pyrenoidosa".
  • Ref.24 : Y. Yoshii, I,. Wakana, K. Miriya, S. Arai, K. Ueda, and I. Inouye, J. Phycol. 40, 1170-1177 (2004) "Carotenoid comositions of Cladophora Balls (Aegagropila linnaei) and some members of the Cladophorales (Ulvophyceae, Chlorophyta): their taxonomic and evolutionary implication".
  • Ref.25 : M. Schagerl, and Clemens Pichler, Aquatic Botany 67 (2000) 117–129 "Pigment composition of freshwater charophyceae".
  • Ref.26 : F. C. Pennington, F. T. Haxo, G. Borch, and Liaaen-Jensen, Biochemical Systematics and Ecology, Vol. 13, No. 3, pp. 215-219, 1985 "Carotenoids of Cryptophyceae".
  • Ref.27 : N. J. Antial, and J.Y. Cheng, British Phycological Journal, Volume 17, Issue 1, 1982 "The Keto carotenoids of two marine cocoid members of the eustimaphyceae" DOI:10.1080/00071618200650061 .
  • Ref.28 : Luis M. Lubián, Olimpio Montero, Ignacio Moreno-Garrido, I. Emma Huertas, Cristina Sobrino, Manuel González-del Valle, Griselda Parés, Journal of Applied Phycology, October 2000, Volume 12, Issue 3-5, pp 249-255 "Nannochloropsis (Eustigmatophyceae) as source of commercially valuable pigments".
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  • Ref.35 : A.Fiksdahl, N. Withers, R. R. L. Guillard, and S. Liaaen-Jensen, Comp. Biochem. Physiol. Vol. 78B, No. 1, pp. 265-271, 1984, "Carotenoids of the Raphidophyceae - a chemosystematic contribution ".
  • Ref.41 : N. I. Krinsky, A. Gordon, and A. I. Stern, Plant Physiol 39: 441-445 1964, "The appearance of Neoxanthin during the Regreenin g of Dark-grown Euglena".
  • Ref.46 : E. S. Egeland, R. R. L. Guillard, and S. Liaaen-Jensen, Phytochemistry, Vol. 44, No. 6, pp.1087-1097, 1997, "Additional carotenoid prototype representatices and general chemosystematic evaluation of carotenoids in prasinophyceae (chlorophyta)".
  • Ref.47 : E. S. Egeland, W. Eikrem, J. Throndsen, C. Wilhelm, M. Zapata, and S. Liaaen-Jensen, Biochemical systematics and Ecology, Vol. 23, NO. 7/8, pp. 747-755, 1995 "Carotenoids from Further Prasinophytes".
  • Ref.53 : G. Nybraaten, and S. L. Jensen, Acta Chem. Scand. Ser. B, 28,(1974), 485, "Algal Carotenoids. XII. * Chemical Reactions of Carotenoids with 2-Hydroxylated beta-Rings".
  • Ref.55 : D. J. Chapman, Archiv fur Mikrobiologie 55, 17-25 (1966), "The Pigments of the Symbiotic Algae (Cyanomes) of Cyanophora paradoxa and Glaucocystis nostochinearum and Two Rhodophyceae, Porphyridium aerugineum and Asterocytis ramosa".
  • Ref.165 : Dalal Asker, Tarek S. Awad, Teruhiko Beppu, Kenji Ueda, Methods in Molecular Biology Volume 892, 2012, pp 99-131, "Novel Zeaxanthin-Producing Bacteria Isolated from a Radioactive Hot Spring Water".
  • Ref.196 : Bhosale P, Zhao da Y, Serban B, Bernstein PS., Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2007 Apr;48(4):1435-40., "Identification of 3-methoxyzeaxanthin as a novel age-related carotenoid metabolite in the human macula.".
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  • CAS
    144-68-3
    Links to other DB
    KEGG COMPOUND: C06098
    KNApSAcK: C00000931
    LipidBank: VCA0007
    MassBank: CA000115, CA000107
    ProCarDB: C1925

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