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Carotenoid Name
IUPAC name (3R,3'R)-beta,beta-Carotene-3,3'-diol
Molecular Weight 
568.848 g/mol
Structure      Search similar carotenoids

Mol file
Carotenoid DB Fingerprints 
Biological functions/Properties 
  • Photosynthetic pigment (Ref.415, Ref.428, Ref.503).
  • Photoprotective activity - protective against UV light irradiation-induced lipid peroxidation (Ref.488, Ref.428).
  • Anti-photosensitizing agent - blue light filter (Ref.415).
  • Anticarcinogenic activity - stronger than β-carotene (Ref.414, Ref.491).
  • Xanthophyll cycle pigment.
  • An antioxidant - 91.2 times stronger singlet oxygen quenching ability than that of α-tocopherol - SOAC value: 91.2±3.7 (Ref.616, Ref.597, Ref.598, Ref.599, Ref.415).
  • Eye protection from oxidative stress which leads to age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and cataracts (Ref.415).
  • Feed additive - yellow coloration, and colorant for birds, swine, and fish (Ref.415).
  • Yellow food coloring (Ref.468).
  • Non-provitamin A. (Ref.408. Ref.415)
  • Membrane stabilizer in chloroplasts - decreases the membrane fluidity, increases the membrane thermostability, and lowers susceptibility to lipid peroxidation (Ref.498).
  • Number of
    conjugated double bonds 
    Number of
    conjugated multiple bonds 
    Canonical SMILES
    Hydrogen Bond donors
    (Lipinski's definition)
    Hydrogen Bond Acceptors
    (Lipinski's definition)
    Complexity of molecule
    Number of heavy atoms
    (Topological Polar Surface Area) 
    40.460 Å2
    Source organisms
    Thermus thermophilus (Ref.435) - Deinococcus-Thermus: Thermophilic bacterium
    Thermus filiformis (Ref.389) - Deinococcus-Thermus
    Prochlorococcus marinus (Ref.273) - Cyanobacteria
    Prochlorococcus marinus strain CCMP 1986 (Ref.274) - Cyanobacteria
    Prochlorococcus marinus strain CCMP 1375 (Ref.274) - Cyanobacteria
    Prochlorococcus marinus strain CCMP 2773 (Ref.274) - Cyanobacteria
    Acaryochloris marina strain MBIC 11017 (Ref.274) - Cyanobacteria: symbiotic species Unicellular Cyanobacterium, an epiphyte on red alga
    Acaryochloris sp. strain Awaji (Ref.274) - Cyanobacteria: an epiphyte on red alga
    Prochlorothrix hollandica strain PCC 9006 (Ref.274) - Cyanobacteria: filamentous oxygenic photoautotrophic procaryotes containing chlorophylls a and b.
    Prochloron sp. (Ref.274) - Cyanobacteria
    Nostoc sp. PCC 7120 (Ref.72) - Cyanobacteria: same as Anabaena sp. PCC 7120
    Oscillantoria rubescens (Ref.1) - Cyanobacteria: other name is Planktothrix rubescens
    Oscillatoria agardhii (Ref.1) - Cyanobacteria: other name is Planktothrix agardhii
    Oscillatoria amoena (Ref.1) - Cyanobacteria
    Oscillatoria limosa (Ref.1) - Cyanobacteria
    Arthrospira sp. (Ref.1) - Cyanobacteria
    Phormidium ectocarpi (Ref.1) - Cyanobacteria
    Phormidium percicinum (Ref.1) - Cyanobacteria
    Phormidium foveolarum (Ref.1) - Cyanobacteria
    Phormidium lucidum (Ref.1) - Cyanobacteria
    Microcoleus vaginatus (Ref.1, Ref.5) - Cyanobacteria
    Anabaena cylindrica (Ref.1, Ref.5) - Cyanobacteria: a nitrogen-fixing filamentous cyanobacterium
    Anabaena variabilis (Ref.1, Ref.5) - Cyanobacteria: filamentous cyanobacterium
    Anabaena aerulosa oscillatorioides (Ref.1) - Cyanobacteria
    Nostoc commune (Ref.1) - Cyanobacteria: star jelly, witch's butter, mare's eggs, fah-tsai and facai, eaten as a salad
    Tolypothrix tenuis (Ref.1) - Cyanobacteria: filaments repeated single false branched forming cyanobacteria, yellow-brown colored
    Calothrix parietina (Ref.1) - Cyanobacteria: a hair-forming cyanobacteria rom an upland stream
    Mastigocladus laminosus (Ref.1, Ref.5) - Cyanobacteria
    Coccochloris elabens (Ref.1, Ref.5) - Cyanobacteria
    Anacystis nidulans (Ref.1) - Cyanobacteria: other name is Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942
    Synechococcus elongatus (Ref.1) - Cyanobacteria: freshwater unicellular cyanobacterium
    Microcystis aeruginosa (Ref.1) - Cyanobacteria
    Merismopedia punctata (Ref.1) - Cyanobacteria: colony square or rectangular
    Synechocystis sp. (Ref.8) - Cyanobacteria
    Synechococcus leopoliensis (Ref.8) - Cyanobacteria
    Aphanizomenon gracile (Ref.8) - Cyanobacteria
    Planktothrix agardhii (Ref.8) - Cyanobacteria
    Microcystis aeruginosa (Ref.8) - Cyanobacteria
    Bangia fuscopurpurea (Ref.9) - Red alga: Bangiaceae
    Bangia alropurpurea (Ref.10) - Red alga: Bangiaceae
    Porphyra perforata (Ref.10) - Red alga: Bangiaceae
    Porphyra perforata (conchocelis)  - Red alga: Bangiaceae
    Porphyra thuretii (Ref.10) - Red alga: Bangiaceae
    Smithora naiadum (Ref.10) - Red alga: Compsopogonophyceae
    Porphyridium cruentum (Ref.10) - Red alga: Porphyridiaceae, unicellular alga
    Bonnemaisonia hamifera (Ref.9) - Red alga: Bonnemaisoniales
    Gigartina stellata (Ref.9) - Red alga: Gigartinales
    Antithamnion plumula (Ref.11) - Red alga: Ceramiales
    Ceramium rubrum (Ref.9) - Red alga: Ceramiales
    Polysiphonia brodiae (Ref.9) - Red alga: Ceramiales
    Polysiphonia urceolata (Ref.9) - Red alga: Ceramiales
    Grateloupia setchelii (Ref.10) - Red alga: Halymeniales
    Prionitis cornea (Ref.10) - Red alga: Halymeniales
    Prionitis lyalii (Ref.10) - Red alga: Halymeniales
    Gelidium coulteri (Ref.10) - Red alga: Gelidiales
    Gelidium johnstonii (Ref.10) - Red alga: Gelidiales
    Gelidium pusillum (Ref.10) - Red alga: Gelidiales
    Gelidium robustum (Ref.10) - Red alga: Gelidiales
    Pterocladia capillacea (Ref.10) - Red alga: Gelidiales
    Pterocladia lucida (Ref.10) - Red alga: Gelidiales
    Chondracanthus canaliculatus (Ref.10) - Red alga: Gigartinales
    Chondracanthus corymbiferus (Ref.10) - Red alga: Gigartinales
    Chondracanthus exasperatus (Ref.10) - Red alga: Gigartinales
    Chondracanthus harveyanus (Ref.10) - Red alga: Gigartinales
    Chondracanthus spinosus (Ref.10) - Red alga: Gigartinales
    Chondracanthus squarrulosus (Ref.10) - Red alga: Gigartinales
    Chondracanthus volans (Ref.10) - Red alga: Gigartinales
    Iridaea chordata (Ref.10) - Red alga: Gigartinales
    Mazzaella affinis (Ref.10) - Red alga: Gigartinales
    Mazzaella accida (Ref.10) - Red alga: Gigartinales
    Mazzaella leptorhynchus (Ref.10) - Red alga: Gigartinales
    Mastocarpus papillatus (Ref.10) - Red alga: Gigartinales
    Eucheuma uncinatum (Ref.10) - Red alga: Gigartinales
    Opuntiella californica (Ref.10) - Red alga: Gigartinales
    Plocamium cartilagineum (Ref.10) - Red alga: Plocamiales
    Plocamium violaceae (Ref.10) - Red alga: Plocamiales
    Gracilaria gracilis (Ref.10) - Red alga: Gigartinales
    Gracilaria textorii (Ref.10) - Red alga: Gigartinales
    Gracilariopsis lemaneiformis (Ref.10) - Red alga: Gigartinales
    Centroceras clavulatum (Ref.10) - Red alga: Ceramiales
    Microcladia coulteri (Ref.10) - Red alga: Ceramiales
    Ptilota licina (Ref.10) - Red alga: Ceramiales
    Acrosorium ciliolatum (Ref.10) - Red alga: Ceramiales
    Cryptopleura farlowiana (Ref.10) - Red alga: Ceramiales
    Laurencia gardneri (Ref.10) - Red alga: Ceramiales
    Osmundea spectabilis (Ref.10) - Red alga: Ceramiales
    Polysiphonia hendryi (Ref.10) - Red alga: Ceramiales
    Polysiphonia pacifica (Ref.10) - Red alga: Ceramiales
    Bossiella californica (Ref.10) - Red alga: Corallinales
    Bossiella orbignyana (Ref.10) - Red alga: Corallinales
    Calliarthron tuberculosum (Ref.10) - Red alga: Corallinales
    Corallina officinalis (Ref.10) - Red alga: Corallinales
    Corallina vancouverensis (Ref.10) - Red alga: Corallinales
    Jania tenella (Ref.10) - Red alga: Corallinales
    Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (Ref.12, Ref.13, Ref.14) - Green alga: Chlamydomonadales, unicellular green alga
    Chlamydomonas parkeae (Ref.15) - Green alga: Chlamydomonadales, unicellular marine flagellate
    Protosiphon botryoides (Ref.16, Ref.17) - Green alga: Chlamydomonadales
    Ankistrodesmus spp. (Ref.16) - Green alga: Scenedesmaceae
    Pleurastrum paucicellulare (Ref.16) - Green alga: Ulvophyceae
    Oedogonium cardiacum (Ref.16) - Green alga: Chlorophyceae
    Chara foetida (Ref.16) - Green plants: Charophyceae
    Botryococcus braunii (Ref.19) - Green alga: Trebouxiophyceae
    Chlorella pyrenoidosa (Ref.21) - Green alga: Trebouxiophyceae
    Cladophoropsis vaucheriaeformis (Ref.24) - Green alga: Ulvophyceae
    Chaetomorpha crassa (Ref.24) - Green alga: Ulvophyceae
    Cladophora japonica (Ref.24) - Green alga: Ulvophyceae
    Cladophora ohkuboana (Ref.24) - Green alga: Ulvophyceae
    Chara tomentosa (Ref.25) - Green plants: Charophyceae
    Chara vulgaris (Ref.25) - Green plants: Charophyceae
    Chara contraria (Ref.25) - Green plants: Charophyceae
    Chara gymnophylla (Ref.25) - Green plants: Charophyceae
    Chara hispida (Ref.25) - Green plants: Charophyceae
    Chara polyacantha (Ref.25) - Green plants: Charophyceae
    Chara rudis (Ref.25) - Green plants: Charophyceae
    Chara intermedia (Ref.25) - Green plants: Charophyceae
    Chara globularis (Ref.25) - Green plants: Charophyceae
    Chara aspera (Ref.25) - Green plants: Charophyceae
    Nitella opaca (Ref.25) - Green plants: Charophyceae
    Cryptomonas ovata (Ref.26) - Alga: Cryptomonad
    Nannochloropsis oculata (Ref.27, Ref.28) - Alga: Eustigmatophyceae
    Nannochloropsis salina (Ref.27, Ref.28) - Alga: Eustigmatophyceae
    Nannochloropsis gaditana (Ref.28) - Alga: Eustigmatophyceae
    Ochromonas sp. (Ref.30) - Golden alga: Chrysophyceae
    Poterioochromonas malhamensis (Ref.30) - Golden alga: Synurophyceae
    Olisthodiscus luteus (Ref.30) - Alga: unclassified stramenopiles
    Chromulina ochromonoides (Ref.30) - Golden alga: Chrysophyceae
    Chattonella japonica (Ref.35) - Alga: Raphidophyceae
    Euglena gracilis var. bacillarus (Ref.41) - Alga: Euglenoid
    Prasinococcus capsulatus (Ref.46) - Green alga: Prasinophyte
    Pycnococcus provasolii (Ref.46) - Green alga: Prasinophyte
    Nephroselmis olivace (Ref.46) - Green alga: Prasinophyte
    Nephroselmis pyriformis (Ref.46) - Green alga: Prasinophyte
    Nephroselmis rotunda (Ref.46, Ref.47) - Green alga: Prasinophyte
    Tetraselmis sp. (Ref.46, Ref.47) - Green alga: Chlorodendraceae
    Pyramimonas amylifera (Ref.46) - Green alga: Prasinophyte
    Fucus serratus (Ref.53) - Brown alga: Fucaceae
    Fucus vesiculosus (Ref.53) - Brown alga: Fucaceae
    Pelvetia canaliculata (Ref.53) - Brown alga: Fucaceae
    Ascophyllum nodosum (Ref.53) - Brown alga: Fucaceae
    Laminaria digitata (Ref.53) - Brown alga: Laminariaceae
    Laminaria saccharina (Ref.53) - Brown alga: Laminariaceae
    Cyanophora paradoxa (Ref.55) - Glaucophyte: a freshwater species
    Glaucocystis nostochinearum (Ref.55) - Glaucophyte: Glaucocystophyceae
    Porphyridium aerugineum (Ref.55) - Red alga: Porphyridiaceae, unicellular alga
    Asterocytis ramosa (Ref.55) - Red alga: Compsopogonophyceae
    Sphingobacteriaceae sp. (Ref.165) - Bacteroidetes
    Sphingomonadaceae sp. (Ref.165) - Alphaproteobacteria: marine anoxygenic phototroph with BChl a
    Homo sapiens (Ref.196) - Mammal: Human
    Gallus gallus (Ref.219) - Bird: chicken
    Cyanidioschyzon merolae (Ref.63) - Red alga: Cyanidiaceae, unicellular haploid red alga adapted to high sulfur acidic hot spring environments
    Gelliodes callista (Ref.253) - Sea sponge
    Corbicula japonica (Ref.221) - Shellfish: bivalve
    Corbicula sandai (Ref.221) - Shellfish: bivalve
    Corbicula clam (Ref.221) - Shellfish: bivalve
    Diospyros kaki (Ref.282) - Land plant: kaki persimmon
    Cladonia sp. (Ref.609) - Fungi: lichen, ascomycetes
    Capsicum annuum var. lycopersiciforme flavum (Ref.283) - Land plant: yellow paprika
    Mangifera indica (Ref.284) - Land plant: mango
    Citrus reticulata (Ref.292) - Land plant: mandarin orange, tangerine
    Boronia megastigma (Ref.297) - Land plant: brown boronia
    Coffea arabica (Ref.324) - Land plant: arabica coffee
    Coffea canephora (Ref.324) - Land plant: robusta coffee
    Lycium barbarum (Ref.544) - Land plant: goji berry, wolfberry, Duke of Argyll's teatree, Lycium barbarum L.
    rythrobacter longus (Ref.364) - 
    Carassius auratus (Ref.365) - Bony fish: gold fish
    Agelas schmidtii (Ref.369) - Sea sponge
    Protousnea sp. (Ref.388) - Fungi: lichen
    Rhacophorus bipunctatus (Ref.421) - Himalaya flying frog
    Salvelinus alpinus (Ref.440) - Bony fish: arctic char
    Fusinus perplexus (Ref.442) - Shellfish: univalve shell
    Galleria mellonella (Ref.558) - Insect: greater wax moth
    Clione limacina (Ref.635) - gastropods
    Paedoclione doliiformis (Ref.635) - gastropods
    Limacina helicina (Ref.635) - gastropods
  • Ref.435 : Yokoyama A, Shizuri Y, Hoshino T, Sandmann G., Arch Microbiol. 1996 May 22;165(5):342-5., "Thermocryptoxanthins: novel intermediates in the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway of Thermus thermophilus".
  • Ref.389 : Mandelli, Fernanda; Miranda, Viviane S.; Rodrigues, Eliseu; Mercadante, Adriana Z., World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology (2012), 28(4), 1781-1790., "Identification of carotenoids with high antioxidant capacity produced by extremophile microorganisms".
  • Ref.273 : Goericke Ralf and Daniel J. Repeta, Limnology and Oceanography Volume 37, Issue 2, pages 425–433, March 1992, "The pigments of Prochlorococcus marinus: The presence of divinylchlorophyll a and b in a marine procaryote".
  • Ref.274 : Shinichi Takaichi, Mari Mochimaru, Hiroko Uchida, Akio Murakami, Euichi Hirose, Takashi Maoka, Tohru Tsuchiya, and Mamoru Mimuro, Plant Cell Physiol. 53(11): 1881–1888 (2012) doi:10.1093/pcp/pcs126, "Opposite Chilarity of a-Carotene in Unusual Cyanobacteria with Unique Chlorophylls, Acaryochloris and Prochlorococcus".
  • Ref.72 : Heo, Jinsol; Kim, Se Hyeuk; Lee, Pyung Cheon, Applied and Environmental Microbiology (2013), 79(11), 3336-3345., "New insight into the cleavage reaction of Nostoc sp. strain PCC 7120 carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase in natural and nonnatural carotenoids".
  • Ref.1 : S. Hertzberg, S. Liaaen-Jensen, and H. W. Siegelman, Phytochemistry, 1971, Vol. 10, pp. 3121 - 3127 "The carotenois of blue-green algae".
  • Ref.5 : T. W. Goodwin, J. gen. Microbiol. 17, 467-473 (1957), "The nature and distribution of Carotenoids in some Blue-Green Algae".
  • Ref.8 : L. Schlueter, T. L. Lauridsen, G. Krogh, and Joergensen, Freshwater Biology, 2006, 51, 1474-1485 " Identification and quantification of phytoplankton groups in lakes using new pigment ratios – a comparison between pigment analysis by HPLC and microscopy".
  • Ref.9 : T. Bjoernland and M. Aguilar-Martinez, Phytochemistry, 1976, Vol.15 pp.291-296, "Carotenoids in red algae".
  • Ref.10 : N. Schubert, E. Garcia-Mendoza, and I. Pachecho-Ruiz, J. Phycol. 42, 1208-1216 (2006) "Carotenoid composition of marine red algae".
  • Ref.11 : T. Bjornland, G. Borch, and S. Liaaen-Jensen, Phytochemistry, Vol. 23, No 8, pp.1711-1715, 1984. "Configurational studies on red algae carotenoids".
  • Ref.12 : N.I. Krinsky and R. P. Levine, Plant Physiol. Jul 1964; 39(4): 680–687. "Carotenoids of Wild Type and Mutant Strains of the Green Alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardi".
  • Ref.13 : PMID: 1190948: Francis GW, Strand LP, Lien T, Knutsen G., Arch Microbiol. 1975 Aug 28;104(3):249-54. "Variations in the Carotenoid Content of Chlamydomonas reinhardii throughout the Cell cycle".
  • Ref.14 : S. Tkaichi, and M. Mimuro, Plant Cell Physiol. 39(9): 968-977 (1998) "Distribution and Geometric Isomerism of Neoxanthin in Oxygenic Phototrophs: 9'-Cis, a Sole Molecular Form".
  • Ref.15 : T. Sasa, S. Suda, M. M. Watanabe, S. Takaichi, Plant Cell Physiol. 33(5): 527-534(1992) "A novel carotenoid ester, Loroxanthin dodecenoate, from Pyramimonas parkeae (Prasinophyceae) and Chlorarachniophycean alga".
  • Ref.16 : M. Orosa, E. Torres, P. Fidalgo, J. Abalde, Journal of Applied Phycology, October 2000, Volume 12, Issue 3-5, pp 553-556 "Production and analysis of secondary carotenoids in green algae".
  • Ref.17 : H. Kleinig and F. C. Czygan (1969), Z Naturforsch B. 1969 Jul;24(7):927-30. "Lipids of Protosiphon (Chlorophyta) Carotenoids and Carotenoid Esters of five Strains of Protosiphon botryoides Klebs" .
  • Ref.19 : Merete Grunga, Pierre Metzger, Synnove Liaaen-jensen, Biochemical Systematics and Ecology, Volume 17, Issue 4, 28 July 1989, Pages 263–269 "Primary and Secondary Carotenoids in Two Races of the Green Alga Botryocossu braunii".
  • Ref.21 : B. Stephen Inbaraj, J.T. Chien, B. H. Chen. (2005); "Improved high performance liquid chromatographic method for determination of carotenoids in the microalga Chlorella pyrenoidosa".
  • Ref.24 : Y. Yoshii, I,. Wakana, K. Miriya, S. Arai, K. Ueda, and I. Inouye, J. Phycol. 40, 1170-1177 (2004) "Carotenoid comositions of Cladophora Balls (Aegagropila linnaei) and some members of the Cladophorales (Ulvophyceae, Chlorophyta): their taxonomic and evolutionary implication".
  • Ref.25 : M. Schagerl, and Clemens Pichler, Aquatic Botany 67 (2000) 117–129 "Pigment composition of freshwater charophyceae".
  • Ref.26 : F. C. Pennington, F. T. Haxo, G. Borch, and Liaaen-Jensen, Biochemical Systematics and Ecology, Vol. 13, No. 3, pp. 215-219, 1985 "Carotenoids of Cryptophyceae".
  • Ref.27 : N. J. Antial, and J.Y. Cheng, British Phycological Journal, Volume 17, Issue 1, 1982 "The Keto carotenoids of two marine cocoid members of the eustimaphyceae" DOI:10.1080/00071618200650061 .
  • Ref.28 : Luis M. Lubián, Olimpio Montero, Ignacio Moreno-Garrido, I. Emma Huertas, Cristina Sobrino, Manuel González-del Valle, Griselda Parés, Journal of Applied Phycology, October 2000, Volume 12, Issue 3-5, pp 249-255 "Nannochloropsis (Eustigmatophyceae) as source of commercially valuable pigments".
  • Ref.30 : N. W. Withers, A. Fiksdahl, R.C. Tuttle, and S. Liaaen-Jense, Comp. Biochem. Physiol. Vol. 68B, pp. 345 to 349, 1979, "Carotenoids of the Chrysophyceae".
  • Ref.35 : A.Fiksdahl, N. Withers, R. R. L. Guillard, and S. Liaaen-Jensen, Comp. Biochem. Physiol. Vol. 78B, No. 1, pp. 265-271, 1984, "Carotenoids of the Raphidophyceae - a chemosystematic contribution ".
  • Ref.41 : N. I. Krinsky, A. Gordon, and A. I. Stern, Plant Physiol 39: 441-445 1964, "The appearance of Neoxanthin during the Regreenin g of Dark-grown Euglena".
  • Ref.46 : E. S. Egeland, R. R. L. Guillard, and S. Liaaen-Jensen, Phytochemistry, Vol. 44, No. 6, pp.1087-1097, 1997, "Additional carotenoid prototype representatices and general chemosystematic evaluation of carotenoids in prasinophyceae (chlorophyta)".
  • Ref.47 : E. S. Egeland, W. Eikrem, J. Throndsen, C. Wilhelm, M. Zapata, and S. Liaaen-Jensen, Biochemical systematics and Ecology, Vol. 23, NO. 7/8, pp. 747-755, 1995 "Carotenoids from Further Prasinophytes".
  • Ref.53 : G. Nybraaten, and S. L. Jensen, Acta Chem. Scand. Ser. B, 28,(1974), 485, "Algal Carotenoids. XII. * Chemical Reactions of Carotenoids with 2-Hydroxylated beta-Rings".
  • Ref.55 : D. J. Chapman, Archiv fur Mikrobiologie 55, 17-25 (1966), "The Pigments of the Symbiotic Algae (Cyanomes) of Cyanophora paradoxa and Glaucocystis nostochinearum and Two Rhodophyceae, Porphyridium aerugineum and Asterocytis ramosa".
  • Ref.165 : Dalal Asker, Tarek S. Awad, Teruhiko Beppu, Kenji Ueda, Methods in Molecular Biology Volume 892, 2012, pp 99-131, "Novel Zeaxanthin-Producing Bacteria Isolated from a Radioactive Hot Spring Water".
  • Ref.196 : Bhosale P, Zhao da Y, Serban B, Bernstein PS., Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2007 Apr;48(4):1435-40., "Identification of 3-methoxyzeaxanthin as a novel age-related carotenoid metabolite in the human macula.".
  • Ref.219 : Brulc, Lucka; Simonovska, Breda; Vovk, Irena; Glavnik, Vesna, Journal of Chromatography A (2013), 1318, 134-141. "Determination of egg yolk xanthophylls by isocratic high-performance liquid chromatography".
  • Ref.63 : F. X. Cunningham, Jr., H. Lee, and E. Gantt, Eukaryotic Cell, Mar. 2007, pp. 533-545, "Carotenoid Biosynthesis in the Primitive Red Alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae".
  • Ref.253 : Tanaka, Yoshito; Inoue, Tsuyoshi, Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi (1987), 53(7), 1271-3., "new aldehydic carotenoid gelliodesxanthin from sea sponge Gelliodes callista".
  • Ref.221 : Maoka, Takashi; Fujiwara, Yasuhiro; Hashimoto, Keiji; Akimoto, Naoshige, Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (2005), 53(21), 8357-8364. "Carotenoids in Three Species of Corbicula Clams, Corbicula japonica, Corbicula sandai, and Corbicula sp. (Chinese Freshwater Corbicula Clam)".
  • Ref.282 : A. L. Curl, Volume 25, Issue 5, Article first published online: 25 AUG 2006, "The Carotenoids of Jappanese persimmons".
  • Ref.609 : Prof. Dr. B. Czeczuga and Doz. Dr. R. Doll, Journal of Botanical Taxonomy and Geobatany, Volume 102, Issue 5-6, pages 431–436, 1991, DOI: 10.1002/fedr.19911020518, "The carotenoid content of lichens of the Cladonia genus from Mecklenburg".
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  • CAS
    Links to other DB
    KNApSAcK: C00000931
    LipidBank: VCA0007
    MassBank: CA000115, CA000107
    ProCarDB: C1925

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