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Carotenoid Name
Lutein A
IUPAC name (3R,3'R,6'R)-beta,epsilon-Carotene-3,3'-diol
Molecular Weight 
568.848 g/mol
Mol file
Carotenoid DB Fingerprints 
Biological functions/Properties 
  • Photosynthetic pigment (Ref.415, Ref.503).
  • Photoprotective activity - protective against UV light irradiation-induced lipid peroxidation (Ref.488).
  • Anti-photosensitizing agent - blue light filter (Ref.415).
  • Xanthophyll cycle pigment (Ref.470).
  • Participates in the loroxanthin/lutein interconversion (Ref.626).
  • Anticarcinogenic activity - stronger than that of β-carotene (Ref.411, Ref.414, Ref.491).
  • An antioxidant - 85.4 times stronger singlet oxygen quenching ability than that ofα-tocopherol - SOAC value: 85.4±2.5 (Ref.616, Ref.597, Ref.598, Ref.599, Ref.415).
  • Inhibits NF-KB dependent inflammatory gene expressions (Ref.460).
  • Possibly improve memory scores, rate of learning, and verbal fluency scores in combination with DHA (Ref.519).
  • Food coloring. (Ref.468)
  • Yellowish green/brown color (Ref.415, Ref.430).
  • Non-Provitamin A (Ref.408).
  • Number of
    conjugated double bonds 
    Number of
    conjugated multiple bonds 
    Canonical SMILES
    Hydrogen Bond donors
    (Lipinski's definition)
    Hydrogen Bond Acceptors
    (Lipinski's definition)
    Complexity of molecule
    Number of heavy atoms
    (Topological Polar Surface Area) 
    40.460 Å2
    Source organisms
    Micrococcus luteus (Ref.608) - Actinobacteria: normal inhabitant of human, same as Micrococcus lysodeikticus
    Bangia fuscopurpurea (Ref.9) - Red alga: Bangiaceae
    Bangia alropurpurea (Ref.10) - Red alga: Bangiaceae
    Porphyra perforata (Ref.10) - Red alga: Bangiaceae
    Porphyra perforata (conchocelis)  - Red alga: Bangiaceae
    Porphyra thuretii (Ref.10) - Red alga: Bangiaceae
    Scinaia confusa (Ref.10) - Red alga: Nemaliales
    Scinaia latifrons (Ref.10) - Red alga: Nemaliales
    Bonnemaisonia hamifera (Ref.9) - Red alga: Bonnemaisoniales
    Nemalion helminthoides (multifidium)  - 
    Gigartina stellata (Ref.9) - Red alga: Gigartinales
    Rhodymenia palmata (Ref.9) - Red alga: Palmariales
    Rhodymenia californica (Ref.10) - Red alga: Rhodymeniales
    Fauchea galapagensis (Ref.10) - Red alga: Rhodymeniales
    Antithamnion plumula (Ref.11) - Red alga: Ceramiales
    Ceramium rubrum (Ref.9) - Red alga: Ceramiales
    Grateloupia setchelii (Ref.10) - Red alga: Halymeniales
    Halymenia hollenbergii (Ref.10) - Red alga: Halymeniales
    Prionitis cornea (Ref.10) - Red alga: Halymeniales
    Prionitis lyalii (Ref.10) - Red alga: Halymeniales
    Callophyllis pinnata (Ref.10) - Red alga: Gigartinales
    Gelidium coulteri (Ref.10) - Red alga: Gelidiales
    Gelidium johnstonii (Ref.10) - Red alga: Gelidiales
    Gelidium pusillum (Ref.10) - Red alga: Gelidiales
    Gelidium robustum (Ref.10) - Red alga: Gelidiales
    Pterocladia capillacea (Ref.10) - Red alga: Gelidiales
    Pterocladia lucida (Ref.10) - Red alga: Gelidiales
    Chondracanthus canaliculatus (Ref.10) - Red alga: Gigartinales
    Chondracanthus corymbiferus (Ref.10) - Red alga: Gigartinales
    Chondracanthus exasperatus (Ref.10) - Red alga: Gigartinales
    Chondracanthus harveyanus (Ref.10) - Red alga: Gigartinales
    Chondracanthus spinosus (Ref.10) - Red alga: Gigartinales
    Chondracanthus squarrulosus (Ref.10) - Red alga: Gigartinales
    Chondracanthus volans (Ref.10) - Red alga: Gigartinales
    Iridaea chordata (Ref.10) - Red alga: Gigartinales
    Iridaea chordata (Ref.10) - Red alga: Gigartinales
    Mazzaella affinis (Ref.10) - Red alga: Gigartinales
    Mazzaella flaccida (Ref.10) - Red alga: Gigartinales
    Mazzaella leptorhynchus (Ref.10) - Red alga: Gigartinales
    Mastocarpus papillatus (Ref.10) - Red alga: Gigartinales
    Eucheuma uncinatum (Ref.10) - Red alga: Gigartinales
    Opuntiella californica (Ref.10) - Red alga: Gigartinales
    Plocamium cartilagineum (Ref.10) - Red alga: Plocamiales
    Plocamium violaceae (Ref.10) - Red alga: Plocamiales
    Centroceras clavulatum (Ref.10) - Red alga: Ceramiales
    Microcladia coulteri (Ref.10) - Red alga: Ceramiales
    Neoptilota densa (Ref.10) - Red alga: Ceramiales
    Neoptilota hypnoides (Ref.10) - Red alga: Ceramiales
    Ptilota filicina (Ref.10) - Red alga: Ceramiales
    Acrosorium ciliolatum (Ref.10) - Red alga: Ceramiales
    Asterocolax gardner (Ref.10) - Red alga: Ceramiales
    Cryptopleura farlowiana (Ref.10) - Red alga: Ceramiales
    Cryptopleura lobulifera (Ref.10) - Red alga: Ceramiales
    Phycodrys amplissima (Ref.10) - Red alga: Ceramiales
    Polyneura latissima (Ref.10) - Red alga: Ceramiales
    Laurencia gardneri (Ref.10) - Red alga: Ceramiales
    Polysiphonia hendryi (Ref.10) - Red alga: Ceramiales
    Polysiphonia pacifica (Ref.10) - Red alga: Ceramiales
    Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (Ref.12, Ref.13, Ref.14) - Green alga: Chlamydomonadales, unicellular green alga
    Chlamydomonas parkeae (Ref.15) - Green alga: Chlamydomonadales, unicellular marine flagellate
    Neochloris wimmeri  - Green alga: Scenedesmaceae
    Dunaliella salina (Ref.606) - Green alga: Dunaliellaceae
    Ettlia carotinosa (Ref.16) - Green alga: Chlamydomonadales
    Protosiphon botryoides (Ref.16, Ref.17) - Green alga: Chlamydomonadales
    Scotiellopsis oocystiformis (Ref.16) - Green alga: Scenedesmaceae
    Scenedesmus vacuolatus (Ref.16) - Green alga: Scenedesmaceae
    Chlorella zofingiensis (Ref.16) - Green alga: Scenedesmaceae
    Ankistrodesmus spp. (Ref.16) - Green alga: Scenedesmaceae
    Pleurastrum paucicellulare (Ref.16) - Green alga: Ulvophyceae
    Oedogonium cardiacum (Ref.16) - Green alga: Chlorophyceae
    Chara foetida (Ref.16) - Green plants: Charophyceae
    Chlorella fusca (Ref.18) - Green alga: Scenedesmaceae
    Chlorella zofingiensis (Ref.18) - Green alga: Scenedesmaceae
    Chlorococcum citriforme (Ref.18) - Green alga: Chlamydomonadales
    Coelastrum proboscideum (Ref.18) - Green alga: Scenedesmaceae
    Muriella aurantiaca (Ref.18) - Green alga: Scenedesmaceae
    Muriella decolor (Ref.18) - Green alga: Trebouxiophyceae
    Muriellopsis sp. (Ref.18) - Green alga: Trebouxiophyceae
    Neospongiococcum gelatinosum (Ref.18) - Green alga: Chlamydomonadales
    Tetracystis aplanosporum (Ref.18) - Green alga: Chlamydomonadales
    Tetracystis intermidium (Ref.18) - Green alga: Chlamydomonadales
    Tetracystis tetrasporum (Ref.18) - Green alga: Chlamydomonadales
    Tetracystis sp. (Ref.18) - Green alga: Chlamydomonadales
    Botryococcus braunii (Ref.19) - Green alga: Trebouxiophyceae
    Chlorella pyrenoidosa (Ref.21) - Green alga: Trebouxiophyceae
    Aegagrophila linnaei (Ref.24) - Green alga: Ulvophyceae
    Basicladia sp. (Ref.24) - Green alga: Ulvophyceae
    Chaetomorpha okamurae (Ref.24) - Green alga: Ulvophyceae
    Cladophora conchopheria (Ref.24) - Green alga: Ulvophyceae
    Cladophora horii (Ref.24) - Green alga: Ulvophyceae
    Cladophora kosterae (Ref.24) - Green alga: Ulvophyceae
    Pithophora sp. (Ref.24) - Green alga: Ulvophyceae
    Wittrockiella lyallii (Ref.24) - Green alga: Ulvophyceae
    Wittrockiella paradoxa (Ref.24) - Green alga: Ulvophyceae
    Microdictyon boergesenii (Ref.24) - Green alga: Ulvophyceae
    Cladophoropsis fasciculatus (Ref.24) - Green alga: Ulvophyceae
    Cladophoropsis membranacea (Ref.24) - Green alga: Ulvophyceae
    Cladophoropsis vaucheriaeformis (Ref.24) - Green alga: Ulvophyceae
    Cladophora ohkuboana (Ref.24) - Green alga: Ulvophyceae
    Siphonocladus tropicus (Ref.24) - Green alga: Ulvophyceae
    Chaetomorpha crassa (Ref.24) - Green alga: Ulvophyceae
    Cladophora albida (Ref.24) - Green alga: Ulvophyceae
    Cladophora coelothrix (Ref.24) - Green alga: Ulvophyceae
    Cladophora glomerata (Ref.24) - Green alga: Ulvophyceae
    Cladophora japonica (Ref.24) - Green alga: Ulvophyceae
    Cladophora ohkuboana (Ref.24) - Green alga: Ulvophyceae
    Cladophora pellucida (Ref.24) - Green alga: Ulvophyceae
    Cladophora sericea (Ref.24) - Green alga: Ulvophyceae
    Cladophora vagabunda (Ref.24) - Green alga: Ulvophyceae
    Rhizoclonium grande (Ref.24) - Green alga: Ulvophyceae
    Chara tomentosa (Ref.25) - Green plants: Charophyceae
    Chara vulgaris (Ref.25) - Green plants: Charophyceae
    Chara contraria (Ref.25) - Green plants: Charophyceae
    Chara gymnophylla (Ref.25) - Green plants: Charophyceae
    Chara hispida (Ref.25) - Green plants: Charophyceae
    Chara polyacantha (Ref.25) - Green plants: Charophyceae
    Chara rudis (Ref.25) - Green plants: Charophyceae
    Chara intermedia (Ref.25) - Green plants: Charophyceae
    Chara globularis (Ref.25) - Green plants: Charophyceae
    Chara aspera (Ref.25) - Green plants: Charophyceae
    Nitella opaca (Ref.25) - Green plants: Charophyceae
    Mantoniella squamata (Ref.46, Ref.47) - Green alga: Prasinophyte
    Prasinococcus capsulatus (Ref.46) - Green alga: Prasinophyte
    Nephroselmis olivace (Ref.46) - Green alga: Prasinophyte
    Nephroselmis rotunda (Ref.46, Ref.47) - Green alga: Prasinophyte
    Tetraselmis wettsteinii (Ref.46, Ref.47) - Green alga: Chlorodendraceae
    Tetraselmis sp. (Ref.46, Ref.47) - Green alga: Chlorodendraceae
    Pyramimonas amylifera (Ref.46) - Green alga: Prasinophyte
    Tetraselmis chui (Ref.48) - Green alga: Chlorodendraceae
    Tetraselmis marina (Ref.48) - Green alga: Chlorodendraceae
    Tetraselmis rubens (Ref.48) - Green alga: Chlorodendraceae
    Tetraselmis subcordiformis (Ref.48) - Green alga: Chlorodendraceae
    Tetraselmis suecica (Ref.48) - Green alga: Chlorodendraceae
    Tetraselmis tetrathele (Ref.48) - Green alga: Chlorodendraceae
    Pyramimonas parkeae (Ref.48) - Green alga: Prasinophyte
    Gallus gallus (Ref.219) - Bird: chicken
    Lactuca serriola (Ref.265) - Land plant: prickly lettuce, milk thistle compass plant, scarole, compass-plant
    Lactuca saligna (Ref.265) - Land plant: wild lettuce, willowleaf lettuce
    Lactuca virosa (Ref.265) - Land plant: wild lettuce, bitter lettuce, laitue vireuse, opium lettuce, poisonous lettuce, tall lettuce, great lettuce or rakutu-karyumu-so
    Lactuca sativa L. (Ref.602) - Land plant: garden lettuce, cultivated lettuce, same as Lactuca sativa
    Corbicula japonica (Ref.221) - Shellfish: bivalve
    Spinacia oleracea L. (Ref.601) - Land plant: spinach
    Corbicula sandai (Ref.221) - Shellfish: bivalve
    Corbicula clam (Ref.221) - Shellfish: bivalve
    Averrhoa carambola (Ref.281) - Land plant: starfruit
    Capsicum annuum var. lycopersiciforme flavum (Ref.283) - Land plant: yellow paprika
    Citrus reticulata (Ref.292) - Land plant: mandarin orange, tangerine
    Boronia megastigma (Ref.297) - Land plant: brown boronia
    Botryococcus braunii Kawaguchi-1 (Ref.231) - Green alga: Trebouxiophyceae
    Coffea arabica (Ref.323, Ref.324) - Land plant: arabica coffee
    Coffea canephora (Ref.323, Ref.324) - Land plant: robusta coffee
    Carassius auratus (Ref.365) - Bony fish: gold fish
    Protousnea sp. (Ref.388) - Fungi: lichen
    Rana temporaria (Ref.420) - Common frog
    Rhacophorus bipunctatus (Ref.421) - Himalaya flying frog
    Calendula officinalis (Ref.430) - Land plant: common marigold
    Malus domestica (Ref.492) - Land plant: Rosaceae: apple peel extract
    Salvelinus alpinus (Ref.440) - Bony fish: arctic char
    Fusinus perplexus (Ref.442) - Shellfish: univalve shell
    Homo sapiens (Ref.407, Ref.196) - Human
    Galleria mellonella (Ref.558) - Insect: greater wax moth
    Cladonia sp. (Ref.609) - Fungi: lichen, ascomycetes
  • Ref.608 : GILBY AR. , Nature. 1958 Jul 5;182(4627):55-6., PMID: 13566177, “Lutein in a bacterial membrane.”.
  • Ref.9 : T. Bjoernland and M. Aguilar-Martinez, Phytochemistry, 1976, Vol.15 pp.291-296, "Carotenoids in red algae".
  • Ref.10 : N. Schubert, E. Garcia-Mendoza, and I. Pachecho-Ruiz, J. Phycol. 42, 1208-1216 (2006) "Carotenoid composition of marine red algae".
  • Ref.11 : T. Bjornland, G. Borch, and S. Liaaen-Jensen, Phytochemistry, Vol. 23, No 8, pp.1711-1715, 1984. "Configurational studies on red algae carotenoids".
  • Ref.12 : N.I. Krinsky and R. P. Levine, Plant Physiol. Jul 1964; 39(4): 680–687. "Carotenoids of Wild Type and Mutant Strains of the Green Alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardi".
  • Ref.13 : PMID: 1190948: Francis GW, Strand LP, Lien T, Knutsen G., Arch Microbiol. 1975 Aug 28;104(3):249-54. "Variations in the Carotenoid Content of Chlamydomonas reinhardii throughout the Cell cycle".
  • Ref.14 : S. Tkaichi, and M. Mimuro, Plant Cell Physiol. 39(9): 968-977 (1998) "Distribution and Geometric Isomerism of Neoxanthin in Oxygenic Phototrophs: 9'-Cis, a Sole Molecular Form".
  • Ref.15 : T. Sasa, S. Suda, M. M. Watanabe, S. Takaichi, Plant Cell Physiol. 33(5): 527-534(1992) "A novel carotenoid ester, Loroxanthin dodecenoate, from Pyramimonas parkeae (Prasinophyceae) and Chlorarachniophycean alga".
  • Ref.606 : K.N. Chidambara Murthy, A. Vanitha, J. Rajesha, M. Mahadeva Swamy, P.R. Sowmya, Gokare A. Ravishankar, Life Sciences 76 (2005) 1381 – 1390, "In vivo antioxidant activity of carotenoids from Dunaliella salina — a green microalga".
  • Ref.16 : M. Orosa, E. Torres, P. Fidalgo, J. Abalde, Journal of Applied Phycology, October 2000, Volume 12, Issue 3-5, pp 553-556 "Production and analysis of secondary carotenoids in green algae".
  • Ref.17 : H. Kleinig and F. C. Czygan (1969), Z Naturforsch B. 1969 Jul;24(7):927-30. "Lipids of Protosiphon (Chlorophyta) Carotenoids and Carotenoid Esters of five Strains of Protosiphon botryoides Klebs" .
  • Ref.18 : PMID: 10784296 : Del Campo JA1, Moreno J, Rodríguez H, Vargas MA, Rivas J, Guerrero MG., J Biotechnol. 2000 Jan 7;76(1):51-9. "Carotenoid content of chlorophycean microalgae: factors determining Lutein accumulation in Muriellopsis sp. (Chlorophyta).".
  • Ref.19 : Merete Grunga, Pierre Metzger, Synnove Liaaen-jensen, Biochemical Systematics and Ecology, Volume 17, Issue 4, 28 July 1989, Pages 263–269 "Primary and Secondary Carotenoids in Two Races of the Green Alga Botryocossu braunii".
  • Ref.21 : B. Stephen Inbaraj, J.T. Chien, B. H. Chen. (2005); "Improved high performance liquid chromatographic method for determination of carotenoids in the microalga Chlorella pyrenoidosa".
  • Ref.24 : Y. Yoshii, I,. Wakana, K. Miriya, S. Arai, K. Ueda, and I. Inouye, J. Phycol. 40, 1170-1177 (2004) "Carotenoid comositions of Cladophora Balls (Aegagropila linnaei) and some members of the Cladophorales (Ulvophyceae, Chlorophyta): their taxonomic and evolutionary implication".
  • Ref.25 : M. Schagerl, and Clemens Pichler, Aquatic Botany 67 (2000) 117–129 "Pigment composition of freshwater charophyceae".
  • Ref.46 : E. S. Egeland, R. R. L. Guillard, and S. Liaaen-Jensen, Phytochemistry, Vol. 44, No. 6, pp.1087-1097, 1997, "Additional carotenoid prototype representatices and general chemosystematic evaluation of carotenoids in prasinophyceae (chlorophyta)".
  • Ref.47 : E. S. Egeland, W. Eikrem, J. Throndsen, C. Wilhelm, M. Zapata, and S. Liaaen-Jensen, Biochemical systematics and Ecology, Vol. 23, NO. 7/8, pp. 747-755, 1995 "Carotenoids from Further Prasinophytes".
  • Ref.48 : Jose L. Carrido, Francisco Rodriguez, and Mannuel Zapata J. Phycol. 15, 366-374 (2009) "Occurrence of Loroxanthin, Loroxanthin decenoate, and Loroxanthin dodecenoate in Tetraselmis species (Prasinophyceae, Chlorophyta)".
  • Ref.219 : Brulc, Lucka; Simonovska, Breda; Vovk, Irena; Glavnik, Vesna, Journal of Chromatography A (2013), 1318, 134-141. "Determination of egg yolk xanthophylls by isocratic high-performance liquid chromatography".
  • Ref.265 : B. Mour, J. Amer. Soc. Hort, Sci. 130(6):870-876 2005, "Genetic Variation of Beta-Carotene and Lutein Contents in Lettuce".
  • Ref.602 : Rebeca Cruz, Paula Baptista, Sara Cunha, José Alberto Pereira and Susana Casal, Molecules 2012, 17, 1535-1547; doi:10.3390/molecules17021535, "Carotenoids of Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) Grown on Soil Enriched with Spent Coffee Grounds".
  • Ref.221 : Maoka, Takashi; Fujiwara, Yasuhiro; Hashimoto, Keiji; Akimoto, Naoshige, Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (2005), 53(21), 8357-8364. "Carotenoids in Three Species of Corbicula Clams, Corbicula japonica, Corbicula sandai, and Corbicula sp. (Chinese Freshwater Corbicula Clam)".
  • Ref.601 : Andrea Bunea, Mirjana Andjelkovic, Carmen Socaciu, Otilia Bobis, Madalina Neacsu, Roland Verhe, John Van Camp, Food Chemistry 108 (2008) 649–656, "Total and individual carotenoids and phenolic acids content in fresh, refrigerated and processed spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.)".
  • Ref.281 : Jeana Gross, Raphael Ikan, Gert Eckhardt, Phytochemistry, Volume 22, Issue 6, 1983, Pages 1479-1481, "Carotenoids of the fruit of Averrhoa carambola".
  • Ref.283 : Zoltan Matus, Jozsef Deli, Jozsef Szabolcs, J. Agric. Food Chem., 1991, 39 (11), pp 1907–1914, "Carotenoid composition of yellow pepper during ripening: isolation of .beta.-cryptoxanthin 5,6-epoxide".
  • Ref.292 : Thomas Wingerath ,Wilhelm Stahl ,Dieter Kirsch, Raimund Kaufmann, and Helmut Sies, J. Agric. Food Chem., 1996, 44 (8), pp 2006–2013, DOI: 10.1021/jf960057y, "Fruit Juice Carotenol Fatty Acid Esters and Carotenoids As Identified by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization (MALDI) Mass Spectrometry".
  • Ref.297 : Cooper, Chris M.; Davies, Noel W.; Menary, Robert C., Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (2009), 57(4), 1513-1520., "Changes in Some Carotenoids and Apocarotenoids during Flower Development in Boronia megastigma (Nees)".
  • Ref.231 : Agrawal, Poonam; Laddha, Kirti; Tiwari, Ashok, Agrawal, Poonam; Laddha, Kirti; Tiwari, Ashok., "Isolation and HPLC method development of azafrin from Alectra parasitica var. chitrakutensis".
  • Ref.323 : Andrew J. Simkin, Marcel Kuntz, Helene Moreau, James McCarthy, Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 48 (2010) pp.434-442, "Carotenoid profiling and the expression of carotenoid biosynthetic genes in developing coffee grain".
  • Ref.324 : Andreas Degenhardta, Martin Preinigerb, Frank Ullrich, Developments in Food Science, Volume 43, 2006, Pages 379–382, "Carotenoids as flavour precursors in coffee".
  • Ref.365 : Masahiro Ohkubo, Miyuki Tsushima, Takashi Maoka, Takao Matsuno, Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part B: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Volume 124, Issue 3, November 1999, Pages 333–340, "Carotenoids and their metabolism in the goldfish Carassius auratus (Hibuna)".
  • Ref.388 : B. Czeczuga, E. Czeczuga-Semeniuk, S. Calvelo, and S. Liberatore, Journal of Botanical Taxonomy and Geobotany, Volume 116, Issue 3-4, pages 195–200, August 2005, "Carotenoids in representatives of the Protousnea (Parmeliaceae), endemic genus from South America".
  • Ref.420 : R. A. MORTON AND D. G. ROSEN, Biochem J. 1949; 45(5): 612–627., "Carotenoids, Vitamin A and 7-Dehydrosteroid in the Frog (Rana temporaria)".
  • Ref.421 : Pinky Baruah and Goswami UC., Journal of Research in Biology, pp.114-118, 2012, Vol.2, No.2, "Characterization of carotenoid pigments in amphibian, Rhacophorous bipunctatus".
  • Ref.430 : T. W. GOODWIN, Biochem J. 1954 Sep;58(1):90-4., "Studies in carotenogenesis. 13. The carotenoids of the flower petals of Calendula officinalis.".
  • Ref.492 : Péter Molnár, József Deli, Toru Tanaka,Yoshiyuki Kann, Satoru Tani, Nóra Gyémánt, Joseph Molnár ,and Masami Kawase, Phytotherapy Research, Volume 24, Issue 5, pages 644–648, May 2010, “Carotenoids with anti-Helicobacter pylori activity from Golden deliciousapple”.
  • Ref.440 : B. Bjerkeng, B. Hatlen, M. Jobling, Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part B: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Volume 125, Issue 3, March 2000, Pages 395–404 "Astaxanthin and its metabolites idoxanthin and crustaxanthin in flesh, skin, and gonads of sexually immature and maturing Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus (L.))".
  • Ref.442 : Kiyoshi Katagiri, Takashi Maoka, Takao Matsuno, COMPARATIVE BIOCHEMISTRY AND PHYSIOLOGY. B, COMPARATIVE BIOCHEMISTRY, 84(4):473-476 · JANUARY 1986, "Carotenoids of shell fishes-VIII. Comparative biochemical studies of carotenoids in three species of spindleshell, Fusinus perplexus, F.p. ferrugineus and F. forceps".
  • Ref.407 : Wilhelm Stahl and Helmut Sies, 2012 American Society for Nutrition, "β-Carotene and other carotenoids in protection from sunlight".
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