Carotenoids obi
All carotenoids     All organisms   Feedback
Carotenoids DB          Carotenoids DB: CA00309   
[   About  |   Help  |   Search carotenoid entry  |   Search organism entry  |   Search similar carotenoids  |   Predict biological activities of this carotenoid  |   Search possible pathways   ]
Entry
CA00309                                                            

Classification
Carotenoid Name
β-Carotene;
beta-Carotene
IUPAC name beta,beta-Carotene
Formula
C40H56
Molecular Weight 
536.848 g/mol
Structure   
Mol file
Carotenoid DB Fingerprints 
Biological functions/Properties 
  • Photosynthetic pigment (Ref.500, Ref.503).
  • Photoprotective agent (Ref.451).
  • Present in most of the divisions of the reaction-center complexes (RC) and the light-harvesting complexes (LHC) of photosystem I (PSI) (Ref.461).
  • Provitamin A (Ref.408, Ref.410).
  • An antioxidant - free radical scavenger/singlet oxygen quencher. 101 times stronger than that of α-tocopherol - SOAC value: 101±5 (Ref.616, Ref.415, Ref.451, Ref.597, Ref.598, Ref.599).
  • Anticarcinogenic activity (Ref.414, Ref.491).
  • Cell differentioan and proliferation promoter by upregulating Connexin43 gene. (Ref.412).
  • Immune response enhancement in animals and humans (Ref.472).
  • Brownish yellow color (Ref.430).
  • Number of
    conjugated double bonds 
    11
    Number of
    conjugated multiple bonds 
    11
    Isomers 
  • Constitutional isomer: CA00043, CA00045, CA00191, CA00298, CA00305, CA00587, CA01191, CA00677, CA00680, CA00681, CA00720
  • Cis/trans isomer: CA00311, CA00312, CA00310
  • InChI
    InChI=1S/C40H56/c1-31(19-13-21-33(3)25-27-37-35(5)23-15-29-39(37,7)8)17-11-12-18-32(2)20-14-22-34(4)26-28-38-36(6)24-16-30-40(38,9)10/h11-14,17-22,25-28H,15-16,23-24,29-30H2,1-10H3/b12-11+,19-13+,20-14+,27-25+,28-26+,31-17+,32-18+,33-21+,34-22+
    InChIKey
    OENHQHLEOONYIE-JLTXGRSLSA-N
    Canonical SMILES
    C/C(=C\C=C\C=C(\C=C\C=C(\C=C\C1=C(C)CCCC1(C)C)/C)/C)/C=C/C=C(/C=C/C1=C(C)CCCC1(C)C)\C
    XLogP
    14.734
    Hydrogen Bond donors
    (Lipinski's definition)
    0
    Hydrogen Bond Acceptors
    (Lipinski's definition)
    0
    LipinskiFailures
    1
    Complexity of molecule
    0.312
    Number of heavy atoms
    40
    TPSA
    (Topological Polar Surface Area) 
    0.000 Å2
    Source organisms
    Thermus thermophilus (Ref.435) - Deinococcus-Thermus: Thermophilic bacterium
    Rhizobium lupini (Ref.449) - Alphaproteobacteria: root nodule bacterium
    Halobacterium cutirubrum (Ref.331) - Archaea: Euryarchaeota
    Halorubrum chaoviator Halo-G (Ref.333) - Archaea: Euryarchaeota
    Haloarcula japonica (Ref.621) - Archaea: Euryarchaeota, triangular, disc-shaped, extremely halophilic archaeon that requires high concentrations of NaCl for growth
    Micrococcus roseus (Ref.387) - Actinobacteria
    Prochlorococcus marinus strain CCMP 1986 (Ref.274) - Cyanobacteria
    Prochlorococcus marinus strain CCMP 1375 (Ref.274) - Cyanobacteria
    Prochlorococcus marinus strain CCMP 2773 (Ref.274) - Cyanobacteria
    Stigonema ocellatum (Ref.603) - Cyanobacteria: terrestrial cyanobacteria sampled from rock surfaces containing chlorophyll a
    Stigonema hormoides (Ref.603) - Cyanobacteria: terrestrial cyanobacteria sampled from rock surfaces containing chlorophyll a
    Scytonema crassum (Ref.603) - Cyanobacteria: terrestrial cyanobacteria sampled from rock surfaces containing chlorophyll a
    Acaryochloris marina strain MBIC 11017 (Ref.274) - Cyanobacteria: symbiotic species Unicellular Cyanobacterium, an epiphyte on red alga
    Acaryochloris sp. strain Awaji (Ref.274) - Cyanobacteria: an epiphyte on red alga
    Prochlorothrix hollandica strain PCC 9006 (Ref.274) - Cyanobacteria: filamentous oxygenic photoautotrophic procaryotes containing chlorophylls a and b.
    Prochloron sp. (Ref.274) - Cyanobacteria
    Nostoc sp. PCC 7120 (Ref.72) - Cyanobacteria: same as Anabaena sp. PCC 7120
    Oscillantoria rubescens (Ref.1) - Cyanobacteria: other name is Planktothrix rubescens
    Oscillatoria agardhii (Ref.1) - Cyanobacteria: other name is Planktothrix agardhii
    Oscillatoria amoena (Ref.1) - Cyanobacteria
    Oscillatoria tenuis (Ref.1) - Cyanobacteria: hot spring alga
    Oscillatoria limosa (Ref.1) - Cyanobacteria
    Oscillatoria princeps (Ref.1) - Cyanobacteria
    Arthrospira sp. (Ref.1) - Cyanobacteria
    Phormidium ectocarpi (Ref.1) - Cyanobacteria
    Phormidium percicinum (Ref.1) - Cyanobacteria
    Phormidium foveolarum (Ref.1) - Cyanobacteria
    Phormidium lucidum (Ref.1) - Cyanobacteria
    Microcoleus paludosus (Ref.1) - Cyanobacteria
    Microcoleus vaginatus (Ref.1, Ref.5) - Cyanobacteria
    Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (Ref.1) - Cyanobacteria
    Anabaena flos-aquae (Ref.1) - Cyanobacteria: filamentous cyanobacterium same as Dolichospermum flos-aquae
    Anabaena cylindrica (Ref.1, Ref.5) - Cyanobacteria: a nitrogen-fixing filamentous cyanobacterium
    Anabaena variabilis (Ref.1, Ref.5) - Cyanobacteria: filamentous cyanobacterium
    Anabaena variabilis ATCC 29413 (Ref.527) - Cyanobacteria
    Anabaena aerulosa oscillatorioides (Ref.1) - Cyanobacteria
    Cylindrospormum sp. (Ref.1, Ref.5) - Cyanobacteria
    Nostoc sp. (Ref.1, Ref.5) - Cyanobacteria
    Nostoc commune (Ref.1) - Cyanobacteria: star jelly, witch's butter, mare's eggs, fah-tsai and facai, eaten as a salad
    Tolypothrix tenuis (Ref.1) - Cyanobacteria: filaments repeated single false branched forming cyanobacteria, yellow-brown colored
    Calothrix parietina (Ref.1) - Cyanobacteria: a hair-forming cyanobacteria rom an upland stream
    Mastigocladus laminosus (Ref.1, Ref.5) - Cyanobacteria
    Coccochloris elabens (Ref.1, Ref.5) - Cyanobacteria
    Anacystis nidulans (Ref.1) - Cyanobacteria: other name is Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942
    Synechococcus elongatus (Ref.1) - Cyanobacteria: freshwater unicellular cyanobacterium
    Microcystis aeruginosa (Ref.1) - Cyanobacteria
    Merismopedia punctata (Ref.1) - Cyanobacteria: colony square or rectangular
    Synechocystis sp. (Ref.8) - Cyanobacteria
    Synechococcus leopoliensis (Ref.8) - Cyanobacteria
    Aphanizomenon gracile (Ref.8) - Cyanobacteria
    Planktothrix agardhii (Ref.8) - Cyanobacteria
    Microcystis aeruginosa (Ref.8) - Cyanobacteria
    Bangia fuscopurpurea (Ref.9) - Red alga: Bangiaceae
    Bangia alropurpurea (Ref.10) - Red alga: Bangiaceae
    Porphyra perforata (Ref.10) - Red alga: Bangiaceae
    Porphyra perforata (conchocelis)  - Red alga: Bangiaceae
    Smithora naiadum (Ref.10) - Red alga: Compsopogonophyceae
    Porphyridium cruentum (Ref.10) - Red alga: Porphyridiaceae, unicellular alga
    Scinaia confusa (Ref.10) - Red alga: Nemaliales
    Scinaia latifrons (Ref.10) - Red alga: Nemaliales
    Bonnemaisonia hamifera (Ref.9) - Red alga: Bonnemaisoniales
    Nemalion helminthoides (multifidium)  - 
    Gigartina stellata (Ref.9) - Red alga: Gigartinales
    Rhodymenia palmata (Ref.9) - Red alga: Palmariales
    Antithamnion plumula (Ref.11) - Red alga: Ceramiales
    Ceramium rubrum (Ref.9) - Red alga: Ceramiales
    Polysiphonia brodiae (Ref.9) - Red alga: Ceramiales
    Polysiphonia urceolata (Ref.9) - Red alga: Ceramiales
    Grateloupia setchelii (Ref.10) - Red alga: Halymeniales
    Prionitis lyalii (Ref.10) - Red alga: Halymeniales
    Callophyllis pinnata (Ref.10) - Red alga: Gigartinales
    Gelidium coulteri (Ref.10) - Red alga: Gelidiales
    Gelidium johnstonii (Ref.10) - Red alga: Gelidiales
    Gelidium robustum (Ref.10) - Red alga: Gelidiales
    Pterocladia capillacea (Ref.10) - Red alga: Gelidiales
    Pterocladia lucida (Ref.10) - Red alga: Gelidiales
    Chondracanthus canaliculatus (Ref.10) - Red alga: Gigartinales
    Chondracanthus corymbiferus (Ref.10) - Red alga: Gigartinales
    Chondracanthus exasperatus (Ref.10) - Red alga: Gigartinales
    Chondracanthus spinosus (Ref.10) - Red alga: Gigartinales
    Chondracanthus squarrulosus (Ref.10) - Red alga: Gigartinales
    Chondracanthus volans (Ref.10) - Red alga: Gigartinales
    Mazzaella affinis (Ref.10) - Red alga: Gigartinales
    Mazzaella accida (Ref.10) - Red alga: Gigartinales
    Mastocarpus papillatus (Ref.10) - Red alga: Gigartinales
    Eucheuma uncinatum (Ref.10) - Red alga: Gigartinales
    Opuntiella californica (Ref.10) - Red alga: Gigartinales
    Plocamium cartilagineum (Ref.10) - Red alga: Plocamiales
    Plocamium violaceae (Ref.10) - Red alga: Plocamiales
    Gracilaria textorii (Ref.10) - Red alga: Gigartinales
    Gracilariopsis lemaneiformis (Ref.10) - Red alga: Gigartinales
    Centroceras clavulatum (Ref.10) - Red alga: Ceramiales
    Microcladia coulteri (Ref.10) - Red alga: Ceramiales
    Neoptilota densa (Ref.10) - Red alga: Ceramiales
    Neoptilota hypnoides (Ref.10) - Red alga: Ceramiales
    Acrosorium ciliolatum (Ref.10) - Red alga: Ceramiales
    Cryptopleura lobulifera (Ref.10) - Red alga: Ceramiales
    Phycodrys amplissima (Ref.10) - Red alga: Ceramiales
    Polyneura latissima (Ref.10) - Red alga: Ceramiales
    Laurencia gardneri (Ref.10) - Red alga: Ceramiales
    Osmundea spectabilis (Ref.10) - Red alga: Ceramiales
    Polysiphonia hendryi (Ref.10) - Red alga: Ceramiales
    Polysiphonia pacifica (Ref.10) - Red alga: Ceramiales
    Bossiella californica (Ref.10) - Red alga: Corallinales
    Bossiella orbignyana (Ref.10) - Red alga: Corallinales
    Calliarthron tuberculosum (Ref.10) - Red alga: Corallinales
    Corallina officinalis (Ref.10) - Red alga: Corallinales
    Corallina vancouverensis (Ref.10) - Red alga: Corallinales
    Jania tenella (Ref.10) - Red alga: Corallinales
    Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (Ref.12, Ref.13, Ref.14) - Green alga: Chlamydomonadales, unicellular green alga
    Chlamydomonas parkeae (Ref.15) - Green alga: Chlamydomonadales, unicellular marine flagellate
    Neochloris wimmeri  - Green alga: Scenedesmaceae
    Ettlia carotinosa (Ref.16) - Green alga: Chlamydomonadales
    Protosiphon botryoides (Ref.16, Ref.17) - Green alga: Chlamydomonadales
    Scotiellopsis oocystiformis (Ref.16) - Green alga: Scenedesmaceae
    Ankistrodesmus spp. (Ref.16) - Green alga: Scenedesmaceae
    Pleurastrum paucicellulare (Ref.16) - Green alga: Ulvophyceae
    Oedogonium cardiacum (Ref.16) - Green alga: Chlorophyceae
    Chara foetida (Ref.16) - Green plants: Charophyceae
    Chlorella fusca (Ref.18) - Green alga: Scenedesmaceae
    Chlorella zofingiensis (Ref.18) - Green alga: Scenedesmaceae
    Chlorococcum citriforme (Ref.18) - Green alga: Chlamydomonadales
    Coelastrum proboscideum (Ref.18) - Green alga: Scenedesmaceae
    Muriella aurantiaca (Ref.18) - Green alga: Scenedesmaceae
    Muriella decolor (Ref.18) - Green alga: Trebouxiophyceae
    Muriellopsis sp. (Ref.18) - Green alga: Trebouxiophyceae
    Neospongiococcum gelatinosum (Ref.18) - Green alga: Chlamydomonadales
    Tetracystis aplanosporum (Ref.18) - Green alga: Chlamydomonadales
    Tetracystis intermidium (Ref.18) - Green alga: Chlamydomonadales
    Tetracystis tetrasporum (Ref.18) - Green alga: Chlamydomonadales
    Tetracystis sp. (Ref.18) - Green alga: Chlamydomonadales
    Botryococcus braunii (Ref.19) - Green alga: Trebouxiophyceae
    Chlorella pyrenoidosa (Ref.21) - Green alga: Trebouxiophyceae
    Aegagrophila linnaei (Ref.24) - Green alga: Ulvophyceae
    Basicladia sp. (Ref.24) - Green alga: Ulvophyceae
    Chaetomorpha okamurae (Ref.24) - Green alga: Ulvophyceae
    Cladophora conchopheria (Ref.24) - Green alga: Ulvophyceae
    Cladophora horii (Ref.24) - Green alga: Ulvophyceae
    Cladophora kosterae (Ref.24) - Green alga: Ulvophyceae
    Pithophora sp. (Ref.24) - Green alga: Ulvophyceae
    Wittrockiella lyallii (Ref.24) - Green alga: Ulvophyceae
    Wittrockiella paradoxa (Ref.24) - Green alga: Ulvophyceae
    Microdictyon boergesenii (Ref.24) - Green alga: Ulvophyceae
    Cladophoropsis fasciculatus (Ref.24) - Green alga: Ulvophyceae
    Cladophoropsis membranacea (Ref.24) - Green alga: Ulvophyceae
    Cladophoropsis vaucheriaeformis (Ref.24) - Green alga: Ulvophyceae
    Siphonocladus tropicus (Ref.24) - Green alga: Ulvophyceae
    Chaetomorpha crassa (Ref.24) - Green alga: Ulvophyceae
    Cladophora albida (Ref.24) - Green alga: Ulvophyceae
    Cladophora coelothrix (Ref.24) - Green alga: Ulvophyceae
    Cladophora glomerata (Ref.24) - Green alga: Ulvophyceae
    Cladophora japonica (Ref.24) - Green alga: Ulvophyceae
    Cladophora ohkuboana (Ref.24) - Green alga: Ulvophyceae
    Cladophora pellucida (Ref.24) - Green alga: Ulvophyceae
    Cladophora sericea (Ref.24) - Green alga: Ulvophyceae
    Cladophora vagabunda (Ref.24) - Green alga: Ulvophyceae
    Rhizoclonium grande (Ref.24) - Green alga: Ulvophyceae
    Chara tomentosa (Ref.25) - Green plants: Charophyceae
    Chara vulgaris (Ref.25) - Green plants: Charophyceae
    Chara contraria (Ref.25) - Green plants: Charophyceae
    Chara gymnophylla (Ref.25) - Green plants: Charophyceae
    Chara hispida (Ref.25) - Green plants: Charophyceae
    Chara polyacantha (Ref.25) - Green plants: Charophyceae
    Chara rudis (Ref.25) - Green plants: Charophyceae
    Chara intermedia (Ref.25) - Green plants: Charophyceae
    Chara globularis (Ref.25) - Green plants: Charophyceae
    Chara aspera (Ref.25) - Green plants: Charophyceae
    Nitella opaca (Ref.25) - Green plants: Charophyceae
    Rhodomonas D3 (Ref.26) - Alga: Cryptomonad
    Cryptomonas sp. (Ref.26) - Alga: Cryptomonad
    Cryptomonas ovata (Ref.26) - Alga: Cryptomonad
    Hemiselmis virescens (Ref.26) - Alga: Cryptomonad
    Nannochloropsis oculata (Ref.27, Ref.28) - Alga: Eustigmatophyceae
    Nannochloropsis salina (Ref.27, Ref.28) - Alga: Eustigmatophyceae
    Pelagococcus subviridis (Ref.29) - Alga: Pelagophyceae
    Ochromonas sp. (Ref.30) - Golden alga: Chrysophyceae
    Poterioochromonas malhamensis (Ref.30) - Golden alga: Synurophyceae
    Olisthodiscus luteus (Ref.30) - Alga: unclassified stramenopiles
    Synura petersenii (Ref.30) - Golden alga: Synurophyceae
    Chromulina ochromonoides (Ref.30) - Golden alga: Chrysophyceae
    Sarcinochrysis marina Getler (Ref.30) - Alga: Pelagophyceae
    Hymenomonas carterae (Ref.31) - Alga: Haptophyte
    Isochrysis galbana (Ref.31) - Alga: Haptophyte
    Pavlova lutheri (Ref.31) - Alga: Haptophyte
    Pavlova sp. (NEP)  - Alga: Haptophyte
    Phaeocystis sp. (Ref.31) - Alga: Haptophyte
    Prymnesium parvum (Ref.31) - Alga: Haptophyte
    Coccolithus huxleyi (Ref.32) - Alga: Haptophyte
    Amphidinium carterae (Ref.33) - Alga: Dinoflagellate
    Gymnodinum nelsoni (Ref.33) - Alga: Dinoflagellate
    Gymnodinum splendens (Ref.33) - Alga: Dinoflagellate
    Gyrodinium dorsum (Ref.33) - Alga: Dinoflagellate
    Peridinium bipes (Ref.494) - Alga: Dinoflagellate
    Glenodinium sp. (Ref.33) - Alga: Dinoflagellate
    Dunaliella spp. (Ref.604) - Green alga: Dunaliellaceae
    Dunaliella salina (Ref.604) - Green alga: Dunaliellaceae
    Tovellia sanguinea (Ref.34) - Alga: Dinoflagellate
    Gonyostomum semen (Ref.35) - Alga: Raphidophyceae
    Vacuolaria virescens (Ref.35) - Alga: Raphidophyceae
    Chattonella japonica (Ref.35) - Alga: Raphidophyceae
    Fibrocapsa japonica (Ref.35) - Alga: Raphidophyceae
    Skeletonema costatum (Ref.36) - Alga: Diatom
    Skeletonema menzelii (Ref.36) - Alga: Diatom
    Thalassiosira eccentrica (Ref.36) - Alga: Diatom
    Thalassiosira oceanica (Ref.36) - Alga: Diatom
    Thalassiosira pseudonana (Ref.36) - Alga: Diatom
    Thalassiosira rotula (Ref.36) - Alga: Diatom
    Grammatophora oceanica (Ref.36) - Alga: Diatom
    Navicula pelliculosa (Ref.36) - Alga: Diatom
    Nitzschia sp. (Ref.36) - Alga: Diatom
    Phaeodactylum tricornutum (Ref.36) - Alga: Diatom
    Euglena gracilis (Ref.37, Ref.38, Ref.40) - Alga: Euglenoid
    Euglena gracilis var. bacillarus (Ref.41) - Alga: Euglenoid
    Euglena rubida mainx (Ref.42) - Alga: Euglenoid
    Euglena sanguinea (Ref.43) - Alga: Euglenoid
    Euglena viridis (Ref.44) - Alga: Euglenoid
    Eutreptiella gymnastica (Ref.45) - Alga: Euglenoid
    Bathycoccus prasinos (Ref.46) - Green alga: Prasinophyte
    Mantoniella squamata (Ref.46, Ref.47) - Green alga: Prasinophyte
    Micromonas pusilla (Ref.46, Ref.47) - Green alga: Prasinophyte
    Arousa sp. (Ref.46) - Green alga: Prasinophyte
    Prasinococcus capsulatus (Ref.46) - Green alga: Prasinophyte
    Pycnococcus provasolii (Ref.46) - Green alga: Prasinophyte
    Nephroselmis olivace (Ref.46) - Green alga: Prasinophyte
    Nephroselmis pyriformis (Ref.46) - Green alga: Prasinophyte
    Nephroselmis rotunda (Ref.46, Ref.47) - Green alga: Prasinophyte
    Pseudoscourfieldia marina (Ref.46) - Green alga: Prasinophyte
    Tetraselmis wettsteinii (Ref.46, Ref.47) - Green alga: Chlorodendraceae
    Tetraselmis sp. (Ref.46, Ref.47) - Green alga: Chlorodendraceae
    Pyramimonas amylifera (Ref.46) - Green alga: Prasinophyte
    Tetraselmis chui (Ref.48) - Green alga: Chlorodendraceae
    Tetraselmis marina (Ref.48) - Green alga: Chlorodendraceae
    Tetraselmis rubens (Ref.48) - Green alga: Chlorodendraceae
    Tetraselmis subcordiformis (Ref.48) - Green alga: Chlorodendraceae
    Tetraselmis suecica (Ref.48) - Green alga: Chlorodendraceae
    Tetraselmis tetrathele (Ref.48) - Green alga: Chlorodendraceae
    Pyramimonas parkeae (Ref.48) - Green alga: Prasinophyte
    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Ref.557) - Actinobacteria
    Fucus serratus (Ref.53) - Brown alga: Fucaceae
    Fucus vesiculosus (Ref.53) - Brown alga: Fucaceae
    Pelvetia canaliculata (Ref.53) - Brown alga: Fucaceae
    Ascophyllum nodosum (Ref.53) - Brown alga: Fucaceae
    Laminaria digitata (Ref.53) - Brown alga: Laminariaceae
    Laminaria saccharina (Ref.53) - Brown alga: Laminariaceae
    Cyanophora paradoxa (Ref.55) - Glaucophyte: a freshwater species
    Glaucocystis nostochinearum (Ref.55) - Glaucophyte: Glaucocystophyceae
    Porphyridium aerugineum (Ref.55) - Red alga: Porphyridiaceae, unicellular alga
    Asterocytis ramosa (Ref.55) - Red alga: Compsopogonophyceae
    Coccinella septempunctata (Ref.116) - Insect: seven-spotted ladybird
    Macrosiphum liriodendri (Ref.118) - Insect: aphid
    Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous (Ref.204) - Fungi: red yeast
    Camellia sinensis (Ref.215) - Land plant: tea, black tea, Camellia sinensis L.
    Cyanidioschyzon merolae (Ref.63) - Red alga: Cyanidiaceae, unicellular haploid red alga adapted to high sulfur acidic hot spring environments
    Gelliodes callista (Ref.253) - Sea sponge
    Lactuca serriola (Ref.265) - Land plant: prickly lettuce, milk thistle compass plant, scarole, compass-plant
    Lactuca saligna (Ref.265) - Land plant: wild lettuce, willowleaf lettuce
    Lactuca virosa (Ref.265) - Land plant: wild lettuce, bitter lettuce, laitue vireuse, opium lettuce, poisonous lettuce, tall lettuce, great lettuce or rakutu-karyumu-so
    Lactuca sativa L. (Ref.602) - Land plant: garden lettuce, cultivated lettuce, same as Lactuca sativa
    Gloeobacter violaceus PCC 7421 (Ref.266) - Cyanobacteria: rod-shape unicellular cyanobacterium, diverged very early during the evolution of cyanobacteria
    Averrhoa carambola (Ref.281) - Land plant: starfruit
    Diospyros kaki (Ref.282) - Land plant: kaki persimmon
    Capsicum annuum var. lycopersiciforme flavum (Ref.283) - Land plant: yellow paprika
    Rhodotorula minuta (Ref.506) - Fungi: red yeast
    Mangifera indica (Ref.284) - Land plant: mango
    Ipomoea batatas Lam. (Ref.295) - Land plant: sweet potato
    Boronia megastigma (Ref.297) - Land plant: brown boronia
    Botryococcus braunii Kawaguchi-1 (Ref.301) - Green alga: Trebouxiophyceae
    Xantho poressa (Ref.307) - Crustacean: crab
    Extatosoma tiaratum (Ref.308) - Insect: giant prickly stick insect
    Corbicula japonica (Ref.221) - Shellfish: bivalve
    Corbicula sandai (Ref.221) - Shellfish: bivalve
    Corbicula clam (Ref.221) - Shellfish: bivalve
    Coffea arabica (Ref.323) - Land plant: arabica coffee
    Coffea canephora (Ref.323) - Land plant: robusta coffee
    Galleria mellonella (Ref.558) - Insect: greater wax moth
    Microciona prolifera (Ref.372) - Sea sponge
    Suberites domuncula (Ref.588) - Sea sponge
    Solorina crocea (Ref.374) - Fungi: lichen
    Arabidopsis thaliana (Ref.554) - Land plant: thale-cress, a model organism
    Rosa gallica officinalis (Ref.378) - Land plant: Rosaceae: French rose
    Protousnea sp. (Ref.388) - Fungi: lichen
    Passiflora edulis (Ref.129) - Land plant: yellow passion fruit
    Cladonia sp. (Ref.609) - Fungi: lichen, ascomycetes
    Cucumis melo Inodorus Group (Ref.392) - Land plant: orange-fleshed muskmelon "honeydew"
    Carica papaya (Ref.566) - Land plant: papaya
    Suberites sericeus (Ref.393) - Sea sponge
    Rana temporaria (Ref.420) - Common frog
    Rhacophorus bipunctatus (Ref.421) - Himalaya flying frog
    Calendula officinalis (Ref.430) - Land plant: common marigold
    Elaeis spp. (Ref.431) - Land plant: palm oil
    Fusinus perplexus (Ref.442) - Shellfish: univalve shell
    Phoenicoparrus andinus (Ref.471) - Bird: Andean flamingo
    Phoenicoparrus jamesi (Ref.471) - Bird: Puna flamingo
    Citrullus vulgaris (Ref.484) - Land plant: watermelon
    Spinacia oleracea L. (Ref.601) - Land plant: spinach
    Clione limacina (Ref.635) - gastropods
    Paedoclione doliiformis (Ref.635) - gastropods
    Limacina helicina (Ref.635) - gastropods
    Homo sapiens (Ref.407) - Human
    References
  • Ref.435 : Yokoyama A, Shizuri Y, Hoshino T, Sandmann G., Arch Microbiol. 1996 May 22;165(5):342-5., "Thermocryptoxanthins: novel intermediates in the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway of Thermus thermophilus".
  • Ref.449 : Kleinig, Hans; Heumann, Wolfram; Meister, Walter; Englert, Gerhard, Helvetica Chimica Acta (1979), 62(8), 2551-7., "Carotenoids of Rhizobia.  I.  New carotenoids from Rhizobium lupini".
  • Ref.331 : Kushwaha, S. C.; Pugh, E. L.; Kramer, J. K. G.; Kates, M., Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, Lipids and Lipid Metabolism (1972), 260(3), 492-506., "Isolation and identification of dehydrosqualene and C40 carotenoid pigments in Halobacterium cutirubrum cutirubrum".
  • Ref.333 : Davood Naziri, Masoud Hamidi, Salar Hassanzadeh, Vahideh Tarhriz, Bahram Maleki Zanjani, Hossein Nazemyieh, Mohammd Amin Hejazi, Mohammad Saeid Hejazi, Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 2014, 4(1), 61-67, "Analysis of Carotenoid Production by Halorubrum sp. TBZ126; an Extremely Halophilic Archeon from Urmia Lake".
  • Ref.621 : Ying Yang, Rie Yatsunami, Ai Ando, Nobuhiro Miyoko, Toshiaki Fukui, Shinichi Takaichi, Satoshi Nakamura, "Complete Biosynthetic Pathway of the C50 Carotenoid Bacterioruberin from Lycopene in the Extremely Halophilic Archaeon Haloarcula japonica", Journal of Bacteriology, May 2015 Volume 197 Number 9.
  • Ref.387 : Strand, Aase; Shivaji, Sisinthy; Liaaen-Jensen, Synnove, Biochemical Systematics and Ecology (1997), 25(6), 547-552., "Bacterial carotenoids 55. C50-carotenoids 25. Revised structures of carotenoids associated with membranes in psychrotrophic Micrococcus roseus".
  • Ref.274 : Shinichi Takaichi, Mari Mochimaru, Hiroko Uchida, Akio Murakami, Euichi Hirose, Takashi Maoka, Tohru Tsuchiya, and Mamoru Mimuro, Plant Cell Physiol. 53(11): 1881–1888 (2012) doi:10.1093/pcp/pcs126, "Opposite Chilarity of a-Carotene in Unusual Cyanobacteria with Unique Chlorophylls, Acaryochloris and Prochlorococcus".
  • Ref.603 : M Lakatos, W Bilger, B Büdel, Eur. J. Phycol. (2001), 36: 367–375., "Carotenoid composition of terrestrial Cyanobacteria: response to natural light conditions in open rock habitats in Venezuela".
  • Ref.72 : Heo, Jinsol; Kim, Se Hyeuk; Lee, Pyung Cheon, Applied and Environmental Microbiology (2013), 79(11), 3336-3345., "New insight into the cleavage reaction of Nostoc sp. strain PCC 7120 carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase in natural and nonnatural carotenoids".
  • Ref.1 : S. Hertzberg, S. Liaaen-Jensen, and H. W. Siegelman, Phytochemistry, 1971, Vol. 10, pp. 3121 - 3127 "The carotenois of blue-green algae".
  • Ref.5 : T. W. Goodwin, J. gen. Microbiol. 17, 467-473 (1957), "The nature and distribution of Carotenoids in some Blue-Green Algae".
  • Ref.527 : Shinichi Takaichi, Mari Mochimaru, and Takashi Maoka, Plant Cell Physiol. 47(2): 211–216 (2006), doi:10.1093/pcp/pci236, "Presence of Free Myxol and 4-Hydroxymyxol and Absence of Myxol Glycosides in Anabaena variabilis ATCC 29413, and Proposal of a Biosynthetic Pathway of Carotenoids".
  • Ref.8 : L. Schlueter, T. L. Lauridsen, G. Krogh, and Joergensen, Freshwater Biology, 2006, 51, 1474-1485 " Identification and quantification of phytoplankton groups in lakes using new pigment ratios – a comparison between pigment analysis by HPLC and microscopy".
  • Ref.9 : T. Bjoernland and M. Aguilar-Martinez, Phytochemistry, 1976, Vol.15 pp.291-296, "Carotenoids in red algae".
  • Ref.10 : N. Schubert, E. Garcia-Mendoza, and I. Pachecho-Ruiz, J. Phycol. 42, 1208-1216 (2006) "Carotenoid composition of marine red algae".
  • Ref.11 : T. Bjornland, G. Borch, and S. Liaaen-Jensen, Phytochemistry, Vol. 23, No 8, pp.1711-1715, 1984. "Configurational studies on red algae carotenoids".
  • Ref.12 : N.I. Krinsky and R. P. Levine, Plant Physiol. Jul 1964; 39(4): 680–687. "Carotenoids of Wild Type and Mutant Strains of the Green Alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardi".
  • Ref.13 : PMID: 1190948: Francis GW, Strand LP, Lien T, Knutsen G., Arch Microbiol. 1975 Aug 28;104(3):249-54. "Variations in the Carotenoid Content of Chlamydomonas reinhardii throughout the Cell cycle".
  • Ref.14 : S. Tkaichi, and M. Mimuro, Plant Cell Physiol. 39(9): 968-977 (1998) "Distribution and Geometric Isomerism of Neoxanthin in Oxygenic Phototrophs: 9'-Cis, a Sole Molecular Form".
  • Ref.15 : T. Sasa, S. Suda, M. M. Watanabe, S. Takaichi, Plant Cell Physiol. 33(5): 527-534(1992) "A novel carotenoid ester, Loroxanthin dodecenoate, from Pyramimonas parkeae (Prasinophyceae) and Chlorarachniophycean alga".
  • Ref.16 : M. Orosa, E. Torres, P. Fidalgo, J. Abalde, Journal of Applied Phycology, October 2000, Volume 12, Issue 3-5, pp 553-556 "Production and analysis of secondary carotenoids in green algae".
  • Ref.17 : H. Kleinig and F. C. Czygan (1969), Z Naturforsch B. 1969 Jul;24(7):927-30. "Lipids of Protosiphon (Chlorophyta) Carotenoids and Carotenoid Esters of five Strains of Protosiphon botryoides Klebs" .
  • Ref.18 : PMID: 10784296 : Del Campo JA1, Moreno J, Rodríguez H, Vargas MA, Rivas J, Guerrero MG., J Biotechnol. 2000 Jan 7;76(1):51-9. "Carotenoid content of chlorophycean microalgae: factors determining Lutein accumulation in Muriellopsis sp. (Chlorophyta).".
  • Ref.19 : Merete Grunga, Pierre Metzger, Synnove Liaaen-jensen, Biochemical Systematics and Ecology, Volume 17, Issue 4, 28 July 1989, Pages 263–269 "Primary and Secondary Carotenoids in Two Races of the Green Alga Botryocossu braunii".
  • Ref.21 : B. Stephen Inbaraj, J.T. Chien, B. H. Chen. (2005); "Improved high performance liquid chromatographic method for determination of carotenoids in the microalga Chlorella pyrenoidosa".
  • Ref.24 : Y. Yoshii, I,. Wakana, K. Miriya, S. Arai, K. Ueda, and I. Inouye, J. Phycol. 40, 1170-1177 (2004) "Carotenoid comositions of Cladophora Balls (Aegagropila linnaei) and some members of the Cladophorales (Ulvophyceae, Chlorophyta): their taxonomic and evolutionary implication".
  • Ref.25 : M. Schagerl, and Clemens Pichler, Aquatic Botany 67 (2000) 117–129 "Pigment composition of freshwater charophyceae".
  • Ref.26 : F. C. Pennington, F. T. Haxo, G. Borch, and Liaaen-Jensen, Biochemical Systematics and Ecology, Vol. 13, No. 3, pp. 215-219, 1985 "Carotenoids of Cryptophyceae".
  • Ref.27 : N. J. Antial, and J.Y. Cheng, British Phycological Journal, Volume 17, Issue 1, 1982 "The Keto carotenoids of two marine cocoid members of the eustimaphyceae" DOI:10.1080/00071618200650061 .
  • Ref.28 : Luis M. Lubián, Olimpio Montero, Ignacio Moreno-Garrido, I. Emma Huertas, Cristina Sobrino, Manuel González-del Valle, Griselda Parés, Journal of Applied Phycology, October 2000, Volume 12, Issue 3-5, pp 249-255 "Nannochloropsis (Eustigmatophyceae) as source of commercially valuable pigments".
  • Ref.29 : T.Bjoernland, S. Liaaen-Jensen, and J. Throndsen, Phytochemistry, Vol. 28, No. 12, pp. 3347-3353, 1989; "Carotenoids of the marine chrysophyte Pelagococcus subviridis".
  • Ref.30 : N. W. Withers, A. Fiksdahl, R.C. Tuttle, and S. Liaaen-Jense, Comp. Biochem. Physiol. Vol. 68B, pp. 345 to 349, 1979, "Carotenoids of the Chrysophyceae".
  • Ref.31 : R. Berger, and S. Liaaen-Jensen, Biochemical Systematics and Ecology, 1977, Vol. 5, pp.71-75 "Carotenoids of Prymnesiophyceae (Haptophyceae)* ".
  • Ref.32 : N. Arpin, W. A. Svec, and S. Liaaen-Jensen, Phytochemistry, 1976, Vol. 15, pp. 529-532 "New Fucoxanthin related carotenoids from Coccolithus Huxleyi".
  • Ref.33 : J. E. Joansen, W. A. Svec, and S. Liaaen-Jensen, Phytochemistry, 1974, Vol.13 pp.2261-2271, "Carotenoids of the Dinophyceae".
  • Ref.494 : Takashi MAOKA, Miyuki TSUSHIMA, and Hoyoku NISHINO, Chem. Pharm. Bull. 50(12) 1630—1633 (2002), "Isolation and Characterization of Dinochrome A and B, Anti-carcinogenic Active Carotenoids from the Fresh Water Red Tide Peridinium bipes".
  • Ref.604 : White AL, Jahnke LS., Plant Cell Physiol. 2002 Aug;43(8):877-84., "Contrasting effects of UV-A and UV-B on photosynthesis and photoprotection of beta-carotene in two Dunaliella spp.".
  • Ref.34 : R. Frassanito G. Flaim, I. Mancini, G. Guella, Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 34 (2006) pp.843-853, "High production of unexpected carotenoids in Dinophyceae. Astaxanthin esters from freshwater dinoflagellate Tovellia sanguinea".
  • Ref.35 : A.Fiksdahl, N. Withers, R. R. L. Guillard, and S. Liaaen-Jensen, Comp. Biochem. Physiol. Vol. 78B, No. 1, pp. 265-271, 1984, "Carotenoids of the Raphidophyceae - a chemosystematic contribution ".
  • Ref.36 : F. Pennington, R. R. L. Guillard and S. Liaaen-Jensen, Biochemical Systematics and Ecology, Vol.16, No.7/8, pp. 589-592, 1988, "Carotenoid Distribution Patterns in Bacillariophyceae (Diatoms)".
  • Ref.37 : N. I. Krinsky, and T. H. Goldsmith, Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 91, 271-279 (1960), "The Carotenoids of the Flagellated Alga, Euglena gracilis".
  • Ref.38 : D. V. Heelis, W. Kernick, G. O. Philips, and K. Davies, Arch. Microbiol. 121, 207-211 (1979), "Separation and Identification of the Carotenoid Pigments of Stigmata Isolated from Light Grown Cells of Euglena gracilis Strain Z".
  • Ref.40 : 細谷圭助、北岡正三郎、日本栄養•食糧学会誌 Vol. 37, No. 6, 519-524, 1984 「Euglena gracilis Z におけるプロビタミンAの高速液体クロマトグラフによる定量および培養条件による変動」.
  • Ref.41 : N. I. Krinsky, A. Gordon, and A. I. Stern, Plant Physiol 39: 441-445 1964, "The appearance of Neoxanthin during the Regreenin g of Dark-grown Euglena".
  • Ref.42 : B.Czeczuga, Comp. Biochem. Physiol., 1974, Vol. 48B, pp. 349-354, "Carotenoids in Euglena rubida mainx".
  • Ref.43 : Merte grung et.al, S. Liaaen-Jensen, Biochemical Systematics and Ecology, Vol. 21, No. 8, pp. 757-763, 1993 "Algal Carotenoids52*; Secondary carotenoids of Algae 3; Carotenoids in natural bloom of Euglena sanguinea".
  • Ref.44 : A. Fiksdahl, S. Liaaen-Jensen, Phytochemistry, Vol.27, No.5, pp. 1447 - 1450, 1988 "Diacetylenic carotenoids from Euglena viridis".
  • Ref.45 : A. Fiksdahl, T. Bjoernland, and S. Liaaen-Jensen, Phytochemistry, Vol. 23, No.3, pp. 649-655, 1984, "Algal carotenoids with novel end groups".
  • Ref.46 : E. S. Egeland, R. R. L. Guillard, and S. Liaaen-Jensen, Phytochemistry, Vol. 44, No. 6, pp.1087-1097, 1997, "Additional carotenoid prototype representatices and general chemosystematic evaluation of carotenoids in prasinophyceae (chlorophyta)".
  • Ref.47 : E. S. Egeland, W. Eikrem, J. Throndsen, C. Wilhelm, M. Zapata, and S. Liaaen-Jensen, Biochemical systematics and Ecology, Vol. 23, NO. 7/8, pp. 747-755, 1995 "Carotenoids from Further Prasinophytes".
  • Ref.48 : Jose L. Carrido, Francisco Rodriguez, and Mannuel Zapata J. Phycol. 15, 366-374 (2009) "Occurrence of Loroxanthin, Loroxanthin decenoate, and Loroxanthin dodecenoate in Tetraselmis species (Prasinophyceae, Chlorophyta)".
  • Ref.557 : Daniel Scherzinger, Erdmann Scheffer, Cornelia Bar, Hansgeorg Ernst and Salim Al-Babili, FEBS J. 2010 Nov;277(22):4662-73. doi: 10.1111/j.1742-4658.2010.07873.x. Epub 2010 Oct 4."The Mycobacterium tuberculosis ORF Rv0654 encodes a carotenoid oxygenase mediating central and excentric cleavage of conventional and aromatic carotenoids" .
  • Ref.53 : G. Nybraaten, and S. L. Jensen, Acta Chem. Scand. Ser. B, 28,(1974), 485, "Algal Carotenoids. XII. * Chemical Reactions of Carotenoids with 2-Hydroxylated beta-Rings".
  • Ref.55 : D. J. Chapman, Archiv fur Mikrobiologie 55, 17-25 (1966), "The Pigments of the Symbiotic Algae (Cyanomes) of Cyanophora paradoxa and Glaucocystis nostochinearum and Two Rhodophyceae, Porphyridium aerugineum and Asterocytis ramosa".
  • Ref.116 : Britton, George; Lockley, William J. S.; Harriman, Garry A.; Goodwin, Trevor W., Nature (London, United Kingdom) (1977), 266(5597), 49-50., "Pigmentation of the ladybird beetle Coccinella septempunctata by carotenoids not of plant origin".
  • Ref.118 : Andrewes, A. G.; Kjoesen, H.; Liaaen-Jensen, S.; Weisgraber, K. H.; Lousberg, R. J. J. C.; Weiss, U., Acta Chemica Scandinavica (1947-1973) (1971), 25(10), 3878-80., "Animal carotenoids. 7. Carotenes of two color variants of the aphid Macrosiphum liriodendri. Identification of natural γ,​γ-​carotene".
  • Ref.204 : Tani C, Maoka T, Tani M, Moritomo Y, Okada T, Kitahara G, Katamoto H., J Oleo Sci. 2014;63(9):943-51. Epub 2014 Aug 5., "Accumulation of xanthophylls from the phaffia yeast (Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhrous) in calves.".
  • Ref.215 : Taylor, Sarah; Baker, David; Owuor, Philip; Orchard, John; Othieno, Caleb; Gay, Clifton, Taylor, Sarah; Baker, David; Owuor, Philip; Orchard, John; Othieno, Caleb; Gay, Clifton, "A model for predicting black tea quality from the carotenoid and chlorophyll composition of fresh green tea leaf".
  • Ref.63 : F. X. Cunningham, Jr., H. Lee, and E. Gantt, Eukaryotic Cell, Mar. 2007, pp. 533-545, "Carotenoid Biosynthesis in the Primitive Red Alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae".
  • Ref.253 : Tanaka, Yoshito; Inoue, Tsuyoshi, Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi (1987), 53(7), 1271-3., "new aldehydic carotenoid gelliodesxanthin from sea sponge Gelliodes callista".
  • Ref.265 : B. Mour, J. Amer. Soc. Hort, Sci. 130(6):870-876 2005, "Genetic Variation of Beta-Carotene and Lutein Contents in Lettuce".
  • Ref.602 : Rebeca Cruz, Paula Baptista, Sara Cunha, José Alberto Pereira and Susana Casal, Molecules 2012, 17, 1535-1547; doi:10.3390/molecules17021535, "Carotenoids of Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) Grown on Soil Enriched with Spent Coffee Grounds".
  • Ref.266 : Tsuchiya T, Takaichi S, Misawa N, Maoka T, Miyashita H, Mimuro M., FEBS Lett. 2005 Apr 11;579(10):2125-9., "The cyanobacterium Gloeobacter violaceus PCC 7421 uses bacterial-type phytoene desaturase in carotenoid biosynthesis.".
  • Ref.281 : Jeana Gross, Raphael Ikan, Gert Eckhardt, Phytochemistry, Volume 22, Issue 6, 1983, Pages 1479-1481, "Carotenoids of the fruit of Averrhoa carambola".
  • Ref.282 : A. L. Curl, Volume 25, Issue 5, Article first published online: 25 AUG 2006, "The Carotenoids of Jappanese persimmons".
  • Ref.283 : Zoltan Matus, Jozsef Deli, Jozsef Szabolcs, J. Agric. Food Chem., 1991, 39 (11), pp 1907–1914, "Carotenoid composition of yellow pepper during ripening: isolation of .beta.-cryptoxanthin 5,6-epoxide".
  • Ref.506 : K. Shivalkar Yada and R. Prabha, Indian Journal of Science and Technology, Vol 7(12), 1973–1977, December 2014, ISSN (Print) : 0974-6846 , ISSN (Online) : 0974-5645, "Extraction of Pigments from Rhodotorula Species of Dairy Environment".
  • Ref.284 : Adriana Z. Mercadante ,Délia B. Rodriguez-Amaya, George Britton, J. Agric. Food Chem., 1997, 45 (1), pp 120–123, "HPLC and Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Carotenoids from Mango".
  • Ref.295 : Ligia B. Almeida, Marilene V.C. Penteado, Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, Volume 1, Issue 4, November 1988, Pages 341–352, "Carotenoids and pro-vitamin A value of white fleshed Brazilian sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas Lam.)".
  • Ref.297 : Cooper, Chris M.; Davies, Noel W.; Menary, Robert C., Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (2009), 57(4), 1513-1520., "Changes in Some Carotenoids and Apocarotenoids during Flower Development in Boronia megastigma (Nees)".
  • Ref.301 : Tonegawa, Izumi; Okada, Shigeru; Murakami, Masahiro; Yamaguchi, Katsumi, Fisheries Science (1998), 64(2), 305-308., "Pigment composition of the green microalga Botryococcus braunii Kawaguchi-1".
  • Ref.307 : Bilaus, Corina; Nicoara, Elena; Bodea, C.; Petrescu, I., Studii si Cercetari de Biochimie (1972), 15(1), 5-8., "Carotenoids of the decapod Crustacean Xantho poressa".
  • Ref.308 : Kayser, Hartmut, Zeitschrift fuer Naturforschung, C:  Journal of Biosciences (1981), 36C(9-10), 755-64., "Carotenoids in the stick insect, Ectatosoma tiaratum.  Isolation of β,ε-carotene-2-ol and β,ε-carotene-2-one".
  • Ref.221 : Maoka, Takashi; Fujiwara, Yasuhiro; Hashimoto, Keiji; Akimoto, Naoshige, Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (2005), 53(21), 8357-8364. "Carotenoids in Three Species of Corbicula Clams, Corbicula japonica, Corbicula sandai, and Corbicula sp. (Chinese Freshwater Corbicula Clam)".
  • Ref.323 : Andrew J. Simkin, Marcel Kuntz, Helene Moreau, James McCarthy, Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 48 (2010) pp.434-442, "Carotenoid profiling and the expression of carotenoid biosynthetic genes in developing coffee grain".
  • Ref.558 : Vitus Oberhausera, Olaf Voolstraa, Annette Bangerta, Johannes von Lintigb, and Klaus Vogt, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Dec 2;105(48):19000-5. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0807805105. Epub 2008 Nov 19., "NinaB combines carotenoid oxygenase and retinoid isomerase activity in a single polypeptide.".
  • Ref.372 : Litchfield, Carter; Liaaen-Jensen, Synnoeve, Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, Part B:  Biochemistry & Molecular Biology (1980), 66B(3), 359-65., "Animal carotenoids.  Part 23.  Carotenoids of the marine sponge, Microciona prolifera".
  • Ref.588 : Werner E. G. Müller, Xiaohong Wang, Michael Binder, Matthias Wiens, and Heinz C. Schröder, Mar. Drugs 2012, 10, 177-199; doi:10.3390/md10010177, ISSN 1660-3397, "Differential Expression of the Demosponge (Suberites domuncula) Carotenoid Oxygenases in Response to Light: Protection Mechanism Against the Self-Produced Toxic Protein (Suberitine)".
  • Ref.374 : Czeczuga, Bazyli; Olech, Maria, Phyton (Horn, Austria) (1990), 30(2), 235-45., "Investigations on carotenoids in lichens.  XXV.  Studies of carotenoids in lichens from Spitsbergen".
  • Ref.554 : Daniela S. Floss and Michael H. Walter, Plant Signaling & Behavior 4:3, 172-175; March 2009, "Role of carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 1 (CCD1) in apocarotenoid biogenesis revisited".
  • Ref.378 : Maerki-Fischer, Edith; Eugster, Conrad Hans, Helvetica Chimica Acta (1990), 73(5), 1205-9., "Rose pigments. Part 11. New sources of 3'-epilutein in plants".
  • Ref.388 : B. Czeczuga, E. Czeczuga-Semeniuk, S. Calvelo, and S. Liberatore, Journal of Botanical Taxonomy and Geobotany, Volume 116, Issue 3-4, pages 195–200, August 2005, "Carotenoids in representatives of the Protousnea (Parmeliaceae), endemic genus from South America".
  • Ref.129 : da Silva, Sandra Regina; Mercadante, Adriana Z., Ciencia e Tecnologia de Alimentos (Campinas, Brazil) (2002), 22(3), 254-258., "Carotenoid composition of fresh yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis flavicarpa)".
  • Ref.609 : Prof. Dr. B. Czeczuga and Doz. Dr. R. Doll, Journal of Botanical Taxonomy and Geobatany, Volume 102, Issue 5-6, pages 431–436, 1991, DOI: 10.1002/fedr.19911020518, "The carotenoid content of lichens of the Cladonia genus from Mecklenburg".
  • Ref.392 : Fleshman, Matthew K.; Lester, Gene E.; Riedl, Ken M.; Kopec, Rachel E.; Narayanasamy, Sureshbabu; Curley, Robert W.; Schwartz, Steven J.; Harrison, Earl H., Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (2011), 59(9), 4448-4454., "Carotene and Novel Apocarotenoid Concentrations in Orange-Fleshed Cucumis melo Melons: Determinations of β-Carotene Bioaccessibility and Bioavailability".
  • Ref.566 : U Gamage Chandrika, Errol R Jansz, SMD Nalinie Wickramasinghe and Narada D Warnasuriya, J Sci Food Agric 83:1279–1282 (online: 2003), DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.1533, "Carotenoids in yellow- and red-fleshed papaya (Carica papaya L)".
  • Ref.393 : Jonathan T Vogel, Denise M Tieman, Charles A Sims, Asli Z Odabasi, David G Clark, and Harry J Klee, J Sci Food Agric. 2010 Oct;90(13):2233-40. doi: 10.1002/jsfa.4076., "Carotenoid content impacts flavor acceptability in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum).".
  • Ref.420 : R. A. MORTON AND D. G. ROSEN, Biochem J. 1949; 45(5): 612–627., "Carotenoids, Vitamin A and 7-Dehydrosteroid in the Frog (Rana temporaria)".
  • Ref.421 : Pinky Baruah and Goswami UC., Journal of Research in Biology, pp.114-118, 2012, Vol.2, No.2, "Characterization of carotenoid pigments in amphibian, Rhacophorous bipunctatus".
  • Ref.430 : T. W. GOODWIN, Biochem J. 1954 Sep;58(1):90-4., "Studies in carotenogenesis. 13. The carotenoids of the flower petals of Calendula officinalis.".
  • Ref.431 : R. F. Hunter and R. M. Krakenberger, Biochem Jv.40(4); 1946PMC1258385, "Palm-oil carotenoids".
  • Ref.442 : Kiyoshi Katagiri, Takashi Maoka, Takao Matsuno, COMPARATIVE BIOCHEMISTRY AND PHYSIOLOGY. B, COMPARATIVE BIOCHEMISTRY, 84(4):473-476 · JANUARY 1986, "Carotenoids of shell fishes-VIII. Comparative biochemical studies of carotenoids in three species of spindleshell, Fusinus perplexus, F.p. ferrugineus and F. forceps".
  • Ref.471 : Denis L Fox, Thomas S Hopkins, Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, Volume 17, Issue 3, March 1966, Pages 841–856, "Comparative metabolic fractionation of carotenoids in three flamingo species".
  • Ref.484 : Wen’en Zhao, Pin Lv, Huihui Gu, Agricultural Sciences Vol.4, No.7A, 13-20 (2013), http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/as.2013.47A003, "Studies on carotenoids in watermelon flesh".
  • Ref.601 : Andrea Bunea, Mirjana Andjelkovic, Carmen Socaciu, Otilia Bobis, Madalina Neacsu, Roland Verhe, John Van Camp, Food Chemistry 108 (2008) 649–656, "Total and individual carotenoids and phenolic acids content in fresh, refrigerated and processed spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.)".
  • Ref.635 : Takashi Maoka, Takashi Kuwahara, and Masanao Narita, Mar. Drugs 2014, 12, 1460-1470, "Carotenoids of Sea Angels Clione limacina and Paedoclione doliiformis from the Perspective of the Food Chain", doi:10.3390/md12031460.
  • Ref.407 : Wilhelm Stahl and Helmut Sies, 2012 American Society for Nutrition, "β-Carotene and other carotenoids in protection from sunlight".
  • Ref.500 : Koyama Yasushi, Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology, Volume 9, Issues 3–4, June 1991, Pages 265–280, "New trends in photobiology: Structures and functions of carotenoids in photosynthetic systems".
  • Ref.503 : Javier de las Rivas, Anunciacion Abadia, and Javier Abadia, Plant Physiol. (1989) 91, 190-192, “A New Reversed Phase-HPLC Method Resolving All Major Higher Plant Photosynthetic Pigments1”.
  • Ref.451 : Moshell AN, Bjornson L., J Invest Dermatol. 1977 Mar;68(3):157-60., "Photoprotection in erythropoietic protoporphyria: mechanism of photoprotection by beta carotene.".
  • Ref.461 : Tatsuya Sugawara, Ponesakki Ganesan, Zhuosi Li, Yuki Manabe, and Takashi Hirata, Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(6), 3660-3668; doi:10.3390/md12063660, "Siphonaxanthin, a Green Algal Carotenoid, as a Novel Functional Compound".
  • Ref.408 : Jonathan R Mein, Fuzhi Lian, Xiang-Dong Wang, Nutr Rev. 2008 Dec;66(12):667-83. doi: 10.1111/j.1753-4887.2008.00120.x., PMID: 19019036, "Biological activity of lycopene metabolites: implications for cancer prevention".
  • Ref.410 : Carlos Vílchez, Eduardo Forján, María Cuaresma, Francisco Bédmar, Inés Garbayo, and José M. Vega, Mar. Drugs 2011, 9(3), 319-333; doi:10.3390/md9030319, "Marine Carotenoids: Biological Functions and Commercial Applications".
  • Ref.616 : Takahashi S., Iwasaki-Kino Y., and Terao J., and Mukai K., FOOD COMPOSITION AND ADDITIVES, Journal of AOAC International Vol. 99, no.1, 2016 pp.193-197, "Development of Singlet Oxygen Absorption Capacity (SOAC) Assay Method Using a Microplate Reader".
  • Ref.415 : Takuji Tanaka, Masahito Shnimizu, and Hisataka Moriwaki, Molecules 2012, 17, 3202-3242; doi:10.3390/molecules17033202, "Cancer Chemoprevention by Carotenoids".
  • Ref.597 : Kazuo MUKAI, Aya OUCHI, Oleoscience, Vol. 13 (2013) No. 8 p. 371-378, "Antioxidant Activity of Foods Development of Singlet Oxygen Absorption Capacity (SOAC) Assay Method".
  • Ref.598 : Ouchi, A., Aizawa, K., Iwasaki, Y., Inakuma, T., Terao, J., Nagaoka, S., Mukai, K., 2010. Kinetic study of the quenching reaction of singlet oxygen by carotenoids and food extracts in solution. Development of a singlet oxygen absorption capacity (SOAC) assay method. J. Agric. Food Chem. 58, 9967–78. doi:10.1021/jf101947a.
  • Ref.599 : Aizawa, K., Iwasaki, Y., Ouchi, A., Inakuma, T., Nagaoka, S., Terao, J., Mukai, K., 2011. Development of singlet oxygen absorption capacity (SOAC) assay method. 2. Measurements of the SOAC values for carotenoids and food extracts. J. Agric. Food Chem. 59, 3717–29. doi:10.1021/jf104955a .
  • Ref.414 : Nishino H, Murakosh M, Ii T, Takemura M, Kuchide M, Kanazawa M, Mou XY, Wada S, Masuda M, Ohsaka Y, Yogosawa S, Satomi Y, Jinno K., Cancer Metastasis Rev. 2002;21(3-4):257-64., "Carotenoids in cancer chemoprevention.".
  • Ref.491 : Tsushima M, Maoka T, Katsuyama M, Kozuka M, Matsuno T, Tokuda H, Nishino H, Iwashima A., Biol Pharm Bull. 1995 Feb;18(2):227-33., PMID: 7742789, "Inhibitory effect of natural carotenoids on Epstein-Barr virus activation activity of a tumor promoter in Raji cells. A screening study for anti-tumor promoters.".
  • Ref.412 : Li-Xin Zhang, Robert V. Cooney, and John S. Bertram, CANCER RESEARCH 52, 5707-5712, October 15, 1992, "Carotenoids Up-Regulate Connexin43 Gene Expression Independent of Their Provitamin A or Antioxidant Properties1".
  • Ref.472 : Boon P. Chew, and Jean Soon Park, J Nutr. 2004 Jan;134(1):257S-261S., "Carotenoid Action on the Immune Response".
  • CAS
    7235-40-7
    Links to other DB
    KEGG COMPOUND: C02094
    KNApSAcK: C00000919
    LipidBank: VCA0001
    MassBank: CA000023
    ProCarDB: C1920

       Search other references with Google Scholar